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Elements of Fiction
Terms in this set (23)
the main character in a literary work. Not necessary a moral or "good" character
A character or force in conflict with the main character, not equivalent to "the bad guy"
a character's whose main purpose is to highlight the strengths of another character
A word or phrase representing that which can be seen, touched, tasted, smelled, or felt.
A comparison using "like" or "as"
Ex: "He is as hungry as a horse"
A comparison without using like or as
Ex: Our lives are grapes, bitter and sweet.
Ex: I've told you a million times.
the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing.
anything that stands for or represents something else
EX: a flag represents freedom or a dove is a symbol of peace.
a distinctive feature or dominant idea in an artistic or literary composition
EX: In Shakespeare's plays, mistaken identity and the fall of the mighty occur with great regularity.
Central idea of a work of literature
first person point of view
told from the viewpoint of one of the characters using the pronouns "I" and We"
Ex: The Catcher in the Rye, by JD Salinger
second person point of view
the narrator tells the story using the pronouns "You", "Your," and "Yours" to address a reader or listener directly
Ex: You are about to begin reading Italo Calvino's new novel, If on a winter's night a traveler. Relax. Concentrate. Dispel every other thought. Let the world around you fade.
third person point of view
the narrator is not a character in the story
third person subjective POV
this perspective is most common in fiction. We know the protagonist's thoughts, intentions, ideas, and motives, but from the narrator's third-person perspective, without having them spoken from the first-person point of view.
third person omniscient point of view
narrator knows everything in the story and reveals the thoughts of all the characters.
Ex: Elizabeth, having rather expected to affront him, was amazed at his gallantry; but there was a mixture of sweetness and archness in her manner which made it difficult for her to affront anybody; and Darcy had never been so bewitched by any woman as he was by her. He really believed, that were it not for the inferiority of her connections, he should be in some danger.
the picturing in words of something or someone through detailed observation of color, motion, sound, taste, smell, and touch; one of the four modes of discourse.
Two detriment to the overuse of description:
a. time stops - narrative flow of the story stops;
b. it avoids soliciting the reader's imagination.
EX: Abstract: It was a nice day. (AVOID)
Concrete: The sun was shining and a slight breeze blew across my face.
narrative summary is the mortar that connects the bricks of our primary scenes, explaining the who, what, when, where, and such. It is just telling some of the story in whatever way seems to make the most sense. It gets used for everything from brief transitions between scenes ("He left the office and went down to the coffee shop.") to longer summaries of what's been happening ("The next six months were hard on everyone. Even after George found the whatchamacallit and Celia figured out where it fit into the alien machine, nobody could get it working. They almost ran out of air twice when the electrolysis machine broke. Etc.").
danger of narrative summary - it allow the writer to exercise her/his linguistic acumen while still telling a story; it is condensed, quick, and allows for fancy metaphors. It tells a story and does not show it.
these passages are the fastest, most urgent of the three narrative styles - everything is urgent as it is happening now. these scenes are the bread-and-butter of most stories. most immediate sences make use of dialogue and so allow the story to show more easily than description and narrative summary
a basic but longstanding dramatic structure, developed by Socrates in order to build effective dramas and stories. The arc helps us to recognize, speak intelligibly about, and critique a text's structure. The Socratic arc consists of five sections
1. the exposition - setup of the basic dramatic situation of conflict
2. rising action
4. falling action
5. denounement /resolution
depicts a fictional world that closely resembles the events, social interactions, settings, motivations, and feelings encountered in everyday life
A novel that focuses on and often seeks to expose problems in society by vividly portraying their negative effects on individual human beings.
takes its setting and a number of its characters and events from history.
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