Byzantine emperor in the 6th century C.E. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome. He initiated an ambitious building program, including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code.
The most powerful woman in Byzantine history, she passed laws and advised her husband, Justinian
Justinian's Code of Laws
Emperor Justinian collected all existing Roman laws and organized them into a single code, c. 529 CE
A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries CE. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from Scandinavia. They converted to Greek Orthodoxy due to their contacts with the Byzantine Empire.
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul; center of the empire and known for the church Hagia Sophia built by Emperor Justinian
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian in 537 CE
What many Slavic languages are now written in. Was invented so the Slavs could read the Bible in their own tongues.
Great Schism of 1054
the official split between the Western Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church in the East over the use of icons; created
Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass often utilized in Byzantine religious art
religious images used by Christians to aid their devotions
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church in 1054 and shaped life in Eastern Europe and Western Asia
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
the sacred text of Islam; seen as the literal words of God
a law code drawn up by Muslim scholars after Muhammad's death; it provided believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives
A Muslim place of worship
the person who leads prayers in a mosque.
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Islamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad; any good Muslim can become caliph; make up 85-90% Muslims today
This group believed that Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali should be the Caliph. Over time this faction's religious interpretations and practices have also come to differ slightly from most Muslims.
Five Pillars of Islam
Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
Syrian city that was capital of Umayyad caliphate
Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to 1258 CE
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon
a member of a class of traveling poets, musicians, and storytellers who maintain a tradition of oral history in parts of West Africa.
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East; built mosques and universities as he traveled
Major trade route that traded for gold, salt, ivory, and slaves; created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling desert, camels played a huge role in the trading
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
An area of grassland with scattered trees and bushes
Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land; "land for loyalty"
an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors; this was essentially the economic side of feudalism in which serfs and peasants interacted with local lords, trading food and their labor for housing and protection
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests; set quality and training standards and prices to control their industries
In feudal Europe, a person who controlled land and could therefore grant estates to vassals
A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier.
A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
King of the Franks (r. 768-814 CE); emperor (r. 800-814 CE). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy; embraced Christianity
A branch of Christianity that developed in the Western Roman Empire and that recognized the Pope in Rome as its supreme head; split from the Greek Orthodox in 1054
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the Pope is the head.
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established church doctrine
Characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows; example: cathedral of Notre Dame
A place where communities of monks live lives of devotion to God in isolation from the outside world
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotle's philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Everyday language of ordinary people
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 CE undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule; largely unsuccessful
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (1337 to 1453)
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist and Buddhist beliefs with Confucian practices
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. Known for trading luxury goods and spreading Buddhism into China and other areas of East Asia
Invented within China during the 9th century, this substance was became the dominate military technology used to expand European and Asian empires by the 15th century.
an instrument containing a magnetized pointer that shows the direction of magnetic north and bearings from it; invented during the Song Dynasty around the 11th century (1000s) CE
Civil Service Exam
In Imperial China starting in the Han dynasty, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the nationwide administrative bureaucracy.
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the householdGhen
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the 'universal' leader. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire, the largest land-based empire in world history
(1215-1294) Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China.
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through East Asia, the Middle East, and Europe and killed one out of every three people; peaked in Europe from 1347 to 1351 CE.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan
Yuan Dynasty China
Mongol dynasty that ruled China from 1271 to 1368; its name means "great beginnings."
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields; utilized by the Aztecs on Lake Texcoco
The cutting out of flat areas (terraces) into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Terrace farms appears as steps cut into a mountainside. This adaptation allowed both the early Chinese, and the Inca of Mesoamerica to grow enough food for their large populations.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
connected the Incan empire from top to bottom via suspension bridges and roads. Allowed trade to flourish in the empire.
Incan system for payment of taxes with labor; would construct roads, temples, make weapons or armor, harvest and store food -- all for the state
Killing of humans for a purpose like worshiping a god, practiced widely by the Aztecs as part of their polytheistic beliefs
An early form of corn grown by Native Americans
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute—produce of value from their countries—to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable). The Aztecs and Mongols also made use of this system