History Chapter 10,11 & 13
Terms in this set (53)
the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in France instead of in Rome. The popes were more successful in achieving their financial goals than in winning political power. They did this through the sale of indulgences and church offices (benefices)
Between 1347 and 1352, from one-third to one-half of Europe's population died from a virulent combination of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues. The disease, carried by the fleas of infected rats, traveled the caravan routes from central Asia. The initial outbreak shattered social and economic structures.
pope who was angered by Philip IV's demand that the clergy pay taxes to the national treasury.. he wrote a decree called the "Unam Sanctum" which declared his own supremacy over temporal rulers.. he was called to trial by Philip IV and held prisoner, dying soon after his quick release
The theory that authority of a general council is superior to the pope. Was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as a group of Christians represented by a general church council, not a pope. Impacted the schism that ensued later. Compare with constitutionalism: didn't want one ruler but rule by a group representing the people.
Church lawyers argued that only a general council could end the schism. Both popes opposed this theory because it suggested that an assembly of the Church held supremacy over the pope. In 1408, Cardinals from both french and Italians summoned a council in Italian city of Pisa. The council deposed both rivals and elected a new pope, but neither of the old popes accepted the decision. Six years later, the Council of Constance under patronage of emperor-elect Sigismund, deposed of the Pisan and Avigon popes, and the Roman pope was abdicated. Finally, the council elected a Italian cardinal as pope (Martin V). Ended the Schism.
Dance of Death
A picture of naked, rotting corpses dancing before the living (leading them to the grave). This was depicted in the murals of the church of the holy innocents in Paris around 1485, and was a popular image in art and literature. Everyone is equal in the face of death. A metaphor not a dance.
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil (1265-1321). The Divine Comedy is a view of the whole Christian universe, populated with people from antiquity and from Dante's own day. The poem is both a sophisticated summary of philosophical and theological thought at the beginning of the fourteenth century and an astute political commentary on his times. Personal summary of all that is good and bad in medieval culture and politics.
(1378-1417) Split that occurred in the Catholic Church with two Popes, one in Avignon, France and the other in Rome, Italy. This caused many to question the Church's authority.
-A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office.
Hundred Years' War
(1337- 1453) War between England and France over succession to the French throne. It strengthened royal power and brought an end to feudalism. Three disputes triggered this war.
The first was conflicting rights in Gascony in southern France. The kings of England had held Gascony as a fief of the French king. Neither monarchy was content with this arrangement and for the next seventy five years, kings quarreled over sovereignty in the region.
Hundred Years' War triggers
Three disputes caused this war.
1. The first was conflicting rights in Gascony in southern France. The kings of England had held Gascony as a fief of the French king. Neither monarchy was content with this arrangement and for the next seventy five years, kings quarreled over sovereignty in the region.
2. Close relationship between England and the Flemish cloth towns, which were the primary customers for English wool. Flemish artisans rose up in a series of bloody revolts against the aristocratic cloth dealers who had long monopolized power. The count of Flanders and the French king supported the wealthy merchants; the English sided with the artisans
3. Concerned the royal succession in France. Charles IV, son of Philip IV, died without an heir. Closest descendant was grandson of Philip, King Edward III of England. French aristocracy didn't want an English king to inherit throne and unite two kingdoms. They wanted to give throne to a cousin of the late king, Philip VI. When the dispute over Gascony flared up again and Philip attempted to confiscate the region from his English "vassal" Edward III, the English king declared war on him. Edward's goal was not only to recover Gascony but to claim the crown of his maternal grandmother
A certificate issued by the papacy that gave people atonement for their sins and reduced their time in purgatory. Usually were issued for performing a pious act, but during the Reformation, critics accused people of selling them in order to make money. A release from sin, sold by the Catholic church, said to reduce time in purgatory after death
an ecclesiastical censure by the Roman Catholic Church withdrawing certain sacraments and Christian burial from a person or all persons in a particular district
(1358) French peasant revolt; an effect of the Black Death's economy & 100 yrs war; rebels massacred to end revolt.
-To ransom King John II from the English, the French government attempted to increase taxes on the peasantry. At the same times, local nobles increased their rents and demands. Peasants in Paris, fearing they would lose their modest gains of the previous ten years, rebelled against their landlords. The revolt (named after the archetypical French peasant, Jacques Bonnehomme) was a spontaneous outburst directed against nobility, whom the peasants saw as responsible for their ills. Peasants attacked as many nobles as they could find, killing men, women, children, and priests as well as burning houses and churches. In the end however, the peasant and merchant rebels were defeated by aristocratic armies either by killing the peasants or by cutting off their food supply.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake.
-said to have heard the voices of saints ordering her to save Orleans and have the dauphin crowned according to tradition at Reims. King Charles allowed her to go to Orleans, and with the French army's spirits uplifted by her beliefs, they defeated the English and ended the siege.
An Oxford theologian who attacked the doctrinal and political bases of the Church. He thought that the value of the sacraments depended on the worthiness of the priest administering them, that Jesus was present in the Eucharist only in spirit, that indulgences were useless, and that salvation depended on divine predestination rather than individual merit. Normally this would have led him to be killed, but also attacked the Church's right to wealth and luxury, an idea whose political implications pleased the English monarchy and nobility. Only under Henry V were his followers, known as Lollards, vigorously suppressed by the state.
(c. 1320-1384): scholar at Oxford, wanted people to read bible in English, wanted change in church so people could connect and understand more in their own language (more accessible), secretly translated bible, followers were called Lollards
The Italian Cardinal that was elected by the Council of Constance to help restructure the church as a limited monarchy in which the powers of the pope could be controlled through frequent councils. This election ended the Great Schism.
The doctrine of William of Ockham that argued that human reason could not aspire to certain truth; conclusions can not be deduced from specific cases.
-Many believed that people could reach general truths by abstracting universals from particular, individuals cases. Ockham argued that universals were merely names, no more than convenient tags for discussing individual things. He stated that universals had no connection with reality and could not be used to reason from particular observations to general truths. This radical view thus denied that human reason could aspire to certain truth.
Took place in 1524, German peasants raided the countryside applying Luther's revolutionary ideas to society. German princes then took action with their armies crushing the revolt in result of 100,000 people dead. The peasant's feeling betrayed by Luther, rejected his religious leadership
Philip the Fair (IV)
1284-1314; King of France; Pope Boniface responded to Philip's assertion of his power by issuing an official document saying that KINGS MUST ALWAYS OBEY POPES; Philip held the pope prisoner and planned to bring him to France for trial (although the pope was killed); Had Benedicy XVI posioned persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose Clement V (french archbishop) as pope--->moved papacy to Avignon (remained for 69 years) Babylonian Capitivity
The bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in 1302. It declared that there were two powers on earth, the temporal (earthly) and the spiritual (heavenly). The spiritual power, he said, was always supreme over temporal power. In short, kings must always obey popes.
-Extreme assertion of papal supremacy. No salvation outside the Roman Catholic Church & "every human creature" was "subject to the Roman pontiff." Creates tension with French king, Philip the Fair. Power issue.
Wars of the Roses
A series of wars fought by two English houses, or families, in the late fifteenth century for rule of the country. The House of Lancaster had a red rose as its emblem; the House of York had a white rose. The forces of the House of Lancaster won, and their leader, Henry Tudor, father of the future King Henry VIII, became king.
William of Ockham
English philosopher and theologian, opposed much of Aquinas and rejected the Pope's power in the secular realm, nominalist, wrote "Summa Logicae", Heretic whose writings and ideas about human actions influenced Luther's own ideas and writings.
"A central city and its surrounding villages, which together follow the same law, have one form of government, and share languages, religious beliefs, and ways of life."
-The absence of a unifying central authority in Italy, resulting from the collapse of the holy roman empire and the papal schism, allowed ancient guilds and confraternities to transform themselves into self-governing societies. The ones in Italy were the center of power, wealth, and culture in the Christian world.
Donation of Constantine
This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated.
-Lorenzo Valla, who worked for the King of Maples, applied his humanistic training to affairs of state. The king was in constant conflict with the papacy. The pope asserted the right to withhold recognition of the king based in this jurisdictional authority. Applying historical and philological critiques to the text, Valla proved beyond doubt that this document was a forgery and papal claims based on it were without merit.
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. Explored human endeavors in their art, literature, and poetry.
-Most important achievements of these scholars centered on ancient texts. It was their goal to discover as much as had survived from the ancient world and to provide texts of classical authors that were as full and accurate as possible
Four body fluids - blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile - that, according to an ancient theory, control personality by their relative abundance.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, he filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter,he is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
An artistic principle developed in the Renaissance that allowed a painter to create a greater illusion that before. The principle is based on all horizontal lines going towards one or two points on the horizon or at eye level, while vertical lines remain vertical. This was based on the new idea of having a certain perspective with which one should view a painting.
-Created a sense of 3D versus 2D
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, he sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. He wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that "the ends justifies the means."
The study of language in connection with history and literature; the art of language
-Humanists applied their learning to both religious and secular studies. Their interest in human achievement and human potential must be set beside their religious beliefs.
A new era of thought and feeling, by which Europe and its institutions were changed from their forms in the Middle Ages. 15th Century Italy is where the era rose from, and eventhough it pertained to high culture, the changes in literature, the arts, education, and morals spread across a whole area, influenced by the Italians.
-"Rebirth"; the word captures both the emphasis on humanity that characterized this new thinking and the renewed fascination with the classical world. First century (1350-1400) was characterized by a declining population, uncovering of classical texts, and experimentation in a variety of art forms. The second phase (1400-1500) was distinguished by the creation of a set of cultural values and artistic and literary achievements that defined this new style.
the art or study of effective use of language for communication and persuasion; the art of expression
A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
-A 1513 treatise by Machiavelli on ways to gain, keep, and expand power; because of its subsequent impact, probably the most important literary work of the Renaissance.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
-Most dangerous threat to the establishment of an orthodox Protestantism. Identified with people who practiced adult baptism, it was mainly used to tar religious opponents with the brush of extremism. Appeared in German and Swiss towns in the 1520s. Argued that only believers could be members of the true Church of God. Posed a psychological and doctrinal threat to reformers.
A movement that developed in northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church.
-These Christians applied techniques of the Italians to the study of the authorities and texts of the Church. It was a program of reform rather than a philosophy. It aimed to make better Christians through better education. Especially interested in the education of women.
Council of Trent
(1545-1563) defined Protestant heresies Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
-Corrected a number of Church abuses/problems, of which the sale of indulgences was the most substantive. They formulated rules for the better regulation of parish priests and stressed the obligation of priests and bishops to preach to their congregations. They ordered seminaries to be founded in all disoceses where there wasn't already a university so priests could receive sufficient education to perform their duties. They prepared a new modern and uniform Catholic service and centralized and updated the Index of Prohibited Books to include Protestant wrings from all over the continent. Made no concessions to Protestants, the redefinition of traditional Roman Catholicism drew the doctrinal lines clearly and meant that the differences between Catholics and protestants could now only be settled by sword.
(Catholic Reformation) a 16th-century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation.
-This was the church militant. Old instruments such as the Inquisition were revived, and new weapons such as the Index of Prohibited Books were forged. Combined the piety and devotion that stretched from medieval mysticism through humanism, diocesan reforms, and the foundations of new spiritual orders. Also represented an aggressive Catholic response that was determined to meet Protestantism head one and repel it.
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
Began because of a political dispute betw the king and the pope. The pope refused to grant a divorce between King Henry VIII and his Spanish wife. In response to this, the King broke England's ties with the Catholic Church and established himself as the head of Christian faith. However, after the king died, his two daughters reestablished England as a Catholic nation.
Created by King Henry the VIII (1506-47). Used the Protestant reformation as a way to break from Rome and control the Church of England --> Act of Supremacy: the king the only head of the Ch. of England so he could politically run the church. Created turmoil and most Catholics wanted it revoked. The ones that wanted a thorough reformation were the Puritans.
-Under the guidance of Thomas Cromwell, the English Parliament passed statute after statute that made Henry VIII supreme head of Church in England and owner of its vast wealth. Monasteries were dissolved, and a Lutheran service was introduced.
Reformation came late here. In the sixteenth century, this was under the dual government of the duchy of Savoy and the Catholic bishop of the town, who was frequently a Savoy client. Town council was often pitted against the bishop. In 1530, council gained upper hand and forced bishop and administrators out of city. War with Savoy would have likely followed started war but they were in alliance with Bern. Free to follow its own course it religious matters. In 1536, male citizens voted to become Protestant, but there was no Protestant program or reformer leader--> John Calvin comes into play
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. He established the Church of England in 1532.
-His divorce unleashed a groundswell of support for religious change. Religion was legislated through Parliament, and the valuable states if the Church were sold to the gentry. These practices found favor with both the legal profession and the landed elites and made Protestantism more palatable among conservative groups.
Ignatius of Loyola
1521-thought about his sins and cleansed his soul by believing when injured from war. 1522- began to write Spiritual Exercises. Next 18 years he gathered followers, 1540- the pope made his followers a religious order called the Society of Jesus.
(1491-1556) The founder of the Jesuits and author of The Spiritual Exercises. He was originally from Spain, but traveled to Paris, where he formed the Society of Jesus. He was devoted to the papacy, despite being rejected by it.
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the Church during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism
(1509-1564) The Frenchman was influenced by Luther and converted religions and became a highly influential Protestant leader. His "The Institutes of the Christian Religion" (1535) which expressed his view on Christian teachings as faith oriented. Believed that men and women are sinful by nature and that people cannot earn salvation - God
(1509-1564) Protestant reformer; published a book called Institutes of the Christian Religion; faith will save you, not good deeds; absolute sovereignty of God; predestination or "eternal decree"; kept baptism and the Lord's summer; made Geneva a Protestant city, (1509-1564)
chooses a few "elect" who he will save
1400-1468. German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable printing type in Europe around 1439. Created the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, noted for its high aesthetic and technical quality. His printing technology was a key factor in the European Renaissance, and is considered one of the most important inventions of all time.
(1483-1546) a German monk who, in 1517, took a public stand against the sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg; he believed that people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them; his actions began the Reformation.
-He came to believe that the righteousness of God was a gift given freely to the faithful and that to recieve God's righteousness, one only had to believe in God's infinite mercy.
born in Eisleben, Germany 1483, 1505 Augustinian Monk, 1507 ordained as a priest, from 1514 professor of theology at Wittenberg University and priest of city church in Wittenberg
a Catholic spiritual movement involving the quest for individual spiritual fulfillment, which dominated later medieval Roman Catholicism; influenced Erasmus, Luther, and Zwingli; propagated in Germany by the Brethren of the Common Life
The Imitation of Christ was the central text of this; emphasized a simpler personal form of religious practice; a central influence upon Christian humanism; most important thing that brought change to the Catholic Church; helped influence Christian Humanism because they believe in education
A theory by John Calvin which stated that God had ordained every man, woman, and child to salvation or damnation, even before the creation of the world. Therefore, no matter what one did in life it would not affect God's plan.
16th century religious movement marked ultimately by reduction or modification of much of Roman Catholic doctrine and practice and the establishment of Protestant churches
"by faith alone" ---- The material principle of the Protestant Reformation and one of the five solas, referring to the Protestant claim that the Bible teaches that men are saved by faith even without works.
"scripture alone" - everything should be anchored in the biblical text itself. individuals like Martin Luther viewed things like indulgences or praying to icons or statues as being outside biblical text. Man-made traditions
Theresa of Avila
born into a wealthy Spanish family who set up her own order of nuns and then reformed other orders; was canonized
A Spanish saint and Carmelite nun. She experienced mystical visions "from God", which she used to serve Catholicism. Mystic; recognizes monasteries have too much luxury; wrote Interior Castle & Way of Perfection
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