diversity chapter 34 (unit 1)
Terms in this set (82)
Roots originating from the stem at ground level or below; typical of the fibrous root system of monocots.
The meristem at the tip of a shoot or root; responsible for a plant's primary growth.
A bud that forms in the angle (axil) where a leaf meets a stem.
all tissues external to the vascular cambium of a plant
a large organelle that stores the waste products of metabolism and maintains turgor
A type of plant cell, living at functional maturity, which lends flexible support by virtue of primary cell walls thickened at the corners.
specialized cell found adjacent to a sieve tube element
In plants, a lateral meristem that produces secondary growth, mainly in the form of waxy-walled protective cells, including some of the cells that become bark.
in plants, the tissue between the epidermis and the vascular tissue of a stem or root.
A "seed leaf." An embryonic organ that stores and digests reserve materials; may expand when seed germinates.
a waxy layer on the outer body surface that retards water loss
dermal tissue system
The outer covering of a plant, consisting of epidermis in the young plant and periderm in a plant with extensive secondary growth.
A growth pattern in which the growth of an organism or organ ceases when an adult state is reached; characteristic of most animals and some plant organs.
the process whereby the fate of an embryonic cell or group of cells is set
The process whereby originally similar cells follow different developmental pathways; the actual expression of determination.
a specialized cell layer marking the inside of the cortex in roots and some stems. frequently a barrier to free diffusion of solutes
the outermost cell layers
in angiosperms, an elongated, tapering sclerenchyma cell, usually with a thick cell wall, that serves as a support function in xylem
fibrous root system
A root system typical of monocots composed of numerous thin adventitious roots that are all roughly equal in diameter.
In angiosperms, a meristem that forms the floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels).
That part of an apical meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue system of the primary plant body.
ground tissue system
Those parts of the plant body not included in the dermal or vascular tissue systems. Function in storage, photosynthesis, and support.
an increase in the size of the body and its organs by cell division and cell expansion
An open-ended growth pattern in which an organism or organ continues to grow as long as it lives; characteristic of some animals and of plant shoots and roots.
meristem that produces floral meristems as well as other small leafy structures
Cells that perpetuate plant meristems, comparable to animal stem cells. When an initial divides, one daughter cell develops into another initial, while the other differentiates into a more specialized cell.
region between nodes on plant stems
Either of the two meristems, the vascular cambium and the cork cambium, that give rise to a plant's secondary growth.
A root extending outward from the taproot in a taproot system; typical of eudicots.
An outgrowth on the side of the shoot apical meristem that will eventually develop into a leaf.
the chief organ of photosynthesis
A complex, hydrophobic polyphenolic polymer in plant cell walls that crosslinks other wall polymers, strengthening the walls, especially in wood.
Plant tissue made up of undifferentiated actively dividing cells.
Chloroplast-containing, photosynthetic cells in the interior of leaves.
layer of polysaccharides that separates plant cells; a shared one lies outside the primary walls of the 2 cells
The development of form; the overall consequence of determination, differentiation, and growth.
a point on a stem where a leaf is or was attached
A plant tissue composed of relatively unspecialized cells without secondary walls.
in plant roots, tissue just within the endodermic, but outside the root vascular tissue. meristematic activity of pericycle cells produces lateral root primordia
The outer tissue of the secondary plant body, consisting primarily of cork.
In vascular plants, the vascular tissue that transports sugars and other solutes from sources to sinks.
In plants, the repeating modules that compose a shoot, each consisting of one or more leaves, attached to the stem at a node; an internode; and one or more axillary buds.
relatively unspecialized tissue found within a cylinder of vascular tissue
primary cell wall
a structure that forms at the middle lamella after cytokinesis, made up of cellulose microfibrils
growth that is characterized by the lengthening of roots and shoots and by the proliferation of new roots and shoots through branching
Meristem that produces the tissues of the primary plant body.
primary meristem that produces the vascular tissue
Adventitious roots in some monocots that function as supports for the shoot.
the primary meristem that gives rise to the epidermis
root apical meristem
undifferentiated tissue at the apex of the root that gives rise to the organs of the root
A thimble-shaped mass of cells, produced by the root apical meristem, that protects the meristem; the organ that perceives the gravitational stimulus in root gravitropism.
A long, thin process from a root epidermal cell that absorbs water and minerals from the soil solution.
The organ system that anchors a plant in place, absorbs water and dissolved minerals, and may store products of photosynthesis from the shoot system.
organ responsible for anchoring the plant in the soil, absorbing water and minerals, and producing certain hormones. some of these are storage organs
One of the principle types of cells in sclerenchyma.
A plant tissue composed of cells with heavily thickened cell walls. The cells are dead at functional maturity. The principal types of these cells are fibers and sclereids.
secondary cell wall
growth that contributes to an increase in girth
shoot apical meristem
Undifferentiated tissue at the apex of the shoot that gives rise to the organs of the shoot.
The organ system consisting of leaves, stems, and flowers
sieve tube elements
characteristic cell of the phloem in angiosperms, which contains cytoplasm, but relatively few organelles, and whose end walls contain pores that form connections with neighboring cells
any organ that imports the products of photosynthesis, such as roots, developing fruits, and immature leaves
any organ that exports the products of photosynthesis in excess of its own needs, such as mature lead or storage organ
The central cylinder of vascular tissue in a plant stem.
the organ that holds leaves and/or flowers and transports and distributes materials among the other organs of the plant
Small opening in the plant epidermis that permits gas exchange; bounded by a pair of guard cells whose osmotic status regulates the size of the opening.
In the embryos of seed plants, the stalk of cells that pushes the embryo into the endosperm and is a source of nutrient transport to the embryo.
A root system typical of eudicots consisting of a primary root (taproot) that extends downward by tip growth and outward by initiating lateral roots.
any of three organized groups of tissues-dermal, vascular, and ground-that are established during embryogenesis and have distinct functions
the membrane of the plant central vacuole
Either of two types of xylem cells—tracheids and vessel elements—that undergo apoptosis before assuming their transport function.
A type of tracheary element found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants, characterized by tapering ends and walls that are pitted but not perforated.
a strand of vascular tissue, including xylem and phloem as well as thick-walled fibers
a lateral meristem that gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem
vascular tissue system
transport system of a vascular plant, consisting primarily of xylem and phloem
apical meristem that produces leaves
A type of tracheary element with perforated end walls; found only in angiosperms.
secondary xylem tissue
in vascular plants, the tissue that conducts water and minerals; consists in various plants, or tracheids, vessel elements, fibers, and other highly specialized cells
zone of cell division
The apical and primary meristems of a plant root; the source of all cells of the root's primary tissues.
zone of cell elongation
The part of a plant root, generally above the zone of cell division, where cells are expanding (growing), primarily in the longitudinal direction.
zone of maturation
The part of a plant root, generally above the zone of cell elongation, where cells are differentiating.