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chemical bond

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

valance electrons

The electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond are called

chemical bond

The electrostatic attraction between positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons permits two atoms to be held together by a(n)

at relatively high potential energy.

As independent particles, most atoms are

toward low potential energy

Atoms naturally move

decrease their potential energy, thus creating more-stable arrangements of matter.

As atoms bond with each other, they

nonpolar covalent.

If two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is


When atoms share electrons, the electrical attraction of an atom for the shared electrons is called the atom's


If the atoms that share electrons have an unequal attraction for the electrons, the bond is called


What are shared in a covalent bond?

partly ionic and partly covalent.

Most chemical bonds are

one atom usually attracts electrons more strongly than the other.

Nonpolar covalent bonds are not common because

ionic character

The greater the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms, the greater the percentage of ____ in the bond.

nonpolar covalent

A bond that is less than 5% ionic is considered

Mg and Cl.

The pair of elements that forms a bond with the least ionic character is


The B—F bond in BF3 (electronegativity for B is 2.0; electronegativity for F is 4.0) is


In the three molecules, O2, HCl, and F2, what atom would have a partial negative charge?

0%; nonpolar covalent.

The percentage ionic character and the type of bond in Br2 (electronegativity for Br is 2.8) is


A neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is a

molecular formula

Which of the following shows the types and numbers of atoms joined in a single molecule of a molecular compound?


Which of the following is not an example of a molecular formula?


When a stable covalent bond forms, the potential energy of the atoms

at which potential energy is at a minimum.

Bond length is the average distance between two bonded atoms

minimum potential energy.

The energy released when a covalent bond forms is the difference between zero and the



In a molecule of fluorine, the two shared electrons give each fluorine atom how many electron(s) in the outer energy level?


The electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3. How many more electrons does nitrogen need to satisfy the octet rule?

noble gas

What group of elements satisfies the octet rule without forming compounds?

8 electrons.

In drawing a Lewis structure, each nonmetal atom except hydrogen should be surrounded by

least electronegative atom

In drawing a Lewis structure, the central atom is generally the

number of valence electrons in each atom.

To draw a Lewis structure, one must know the

confirm that the total number of valence electrons used equals the number available.

After drawing a Lewis structure, one should


Multiple covalent bonds may occur in atoms that contain carbon, nitrogen, or


The substance whose Lewis structure shows three covalent bonds is


What is the correct Lewis structure for hydrogen chloride, HCl?


single bonding.

Bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure is

double-headed arrow

What is placed between a molecule's resonance structures to indicate resonance?

multiple bonding.

Chemists once theorized that a molecule that contains a single bond and a double bond split its time existing as one of these two structures. This effect became known as

ratio of the combined ions present in a sample.

The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents the

molecular formula

A formula that shows only the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule is called a(n)

molecular formula.

The chemical formula for water, a covalent compound, is H2O. This formula is an example of a(n)


In the NaCl crystal, each Na+ and Cl- ion has how many oppositely charged ions clustered around it?

minimum potential energy.

In an ionic compound, the orderly arrangement of ions in a crystal is the state of


The ions in most ionic compounds are organized into a

repel each other.

In a crystal, the electrons of adjacent ions

energy of crystallization

The energy released when 1 mol of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions is called the

strength of an ionic bond.

The lattice energy is a measure of the

lower potential energy.

Compared with energies of neutral atoms, a crystal lattice has

the bonds in compound A are stronger than the bonds in compound B

If the lattice energy of compound A is greater than that of compound B,

have lower melting points.

Compared with ionic compounds, molecular compounds

weaker than the forces among formula units in ionic bonding

The forces of attraction between molecules in a molecular compound are

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