89 terms

PSY 1010 Exam #2: Chapter 3 Study Guide

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Sensation
process of receiving stimulus from an external source and translating them into neural signals
Perception
process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense
Bottom-Up Processing
sensory receptors record information from external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation
Example of Bottom-Up Processing
ears register sound waves, sends signals to brain, brain interprets it as music
Top-Down Processing
sensational/perceptional experience created by the brain
How does sensation improve a species' chances of survival?
sensation allows one to adapt and respond quickly and accurately to their environment
Sensory Receptors
specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory (afferent) nerves and the brain
3 Types of Sensory Receptors
Photoreception, mechanoreception, and chemoreception
Photoreception
detection of light, perceived as sight
Mechanoreception
detection of pressure, vibration, and movement, perceived as touch, hearing, and equilibrium
Chemoreception
detection of chemical stimuli, perceived as smell and taste
Synaesthesia
an experience in which one sense induces an experience in another sense
Where is visual sensory information processed?
the occipital lobe
Where is hearing sensory information processed?
the temporal lobe
Where is pain, touch, and temperature processed?
the parietal lobe
Absolute Threshold
the minimum amount of stimulus a person can detect
Difference Threshold
the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before a difference can be detected
Subliminal perception
the detection of information below the level of conscious awareness
example of subliminal perception
when continually shown words related to thirst, a participant readily accepted a drink when offered
Is the brain capable of responding to information presented below the threshold?
Yes, the information is stored in our subconscious and can affect our behavior.
Selective Attention
the act of focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others
What factors increase our attention?
Objects that are large, vividly colored, or moving.
Intentional Blindness
failure to perceive objects when focused on a task
Executive Attention
Involves directing attention to engage in higher-level cognitive functioning
Perceptual Set
a predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way
Sensory Adaption
a change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation
Example of Sensory Adaption
stepping into a darker room. Initially, you can't see anything, but as soon as your eyes adjust, objects become more clearer
Properties of Light
wavelength, amplitude, purity
Wavelength
distance between crest of wave, determines the color of an object
Amplitude
the height of a wave, determines the brightness of a color
Purity
whether wavelengths are the same or different, determines saturation
Structures of the Eye
cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina
Cornea
the transparent outer covering of the eye
Pupil
The opening through which light enters the eye
Iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
Lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
Rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
Cones
the receptor cells in the retina that allow for color perception
What makes our blind spot occur?
area in retina that connects to the optic nerve. It contains neither rods nor cones
Left Visual Field
information from here, such as non-verbal information and emotion, are sent to the right hemisphere. Information is processed in the right part of both eyes
Right Visual Field
Information from here, such as speech and grammar, are sent to the left hemisphere. Information is processed in the left part of both eyes
Trichromatic Theory
proposes that color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors that are sensitive to different but overlapping ranges and wavelengths
Opponent-Process Theory
cells in visual system respond to complimentary pairs of red-green and blue-yellow colors. A given cell might be exited by red and inhibited by green, whereas another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue
Gestalt Psychology
a school of thought interested in how people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns
Figure-Ground Relationship
how we organize our perception into stimuli that stands out (figure) and what is left over (ground)
Reversible figure-ground
A pattern that's figure and ground can be alternately perceived. i.e. vase/two faces.
Depth Perception
the ability to see images in 3 dimensions through binocular and monocular cues
binocular cues
depth cues that depend on the combination of images in both eyes
monocular cues
powerful depth cues available from the image in one eye
Gestalt Principles
closure, proximity, similarity
closure
where our eyes fill out gaps in an incomplete image
Proximity
objects near each other tend to be perceived as a unit
Similarity
the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group
Properties of sound
amplitude, frequency, and complexity
sound amplitude
determines volume
sound frequency
determines pitch
Complex sounds
a combination of different frequencies that create sound saturation
Structure of the ear
outer ear, middle ear, inner ear
Outer ear
The part of the ear that collects sound waves; consists of the pinna and the external auditory canal.
Middle ear
channels and amplifies the sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear
Inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, oval window, and basilar membrane. It converts soundwaves into neural signals and sends them to the brain
Hair cells
sensory cells that line the basilar membrane. when sound waves cause the basilar membrane to rub up against the hair cells, the hair cells generate a neural impulse to be sent to the brain. Once destroyed, they cannot be regenerated
cochlear implant
an electronic device that bypasses the damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve
Place Theory
theory on how different frequencies of sounds register on different areas of the basilar membrane. Flaw- cannot be used for lower frequency sounds
Frequency Theory
theory on how the frequency of a sound determines how often the auditory nerve fires. flaw- neurons cannot fire faster than 1000x a second
Volley Principle
theorizes that frequency of a sound causes multiple neurons to fire alternately
step 1 touch
receptors in skin take message, send to...
step 2 touch
spinal chord, then travels up to brain stem
step 3 touch
information travels from brain stem and crosses to opposite side of brain from which information came from (pain in left arm-right hemisphere of brain)
step 4 touch
information is taken to the relay center called the thalamus
step 5 touch
the thalamus relays the information to the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex
Thermoreceptors
sensory nerves that respond to changes in temperature
How does warm and cold feel simulateously
painfully hot
Function of Pain
the sensation that informs us of damage to the body
Fast pathway of pain
registers localized pain and relays it to the cortex in a fraction of a second
Slow pathway of pain
slow-to-develop nagging pain, takes a detour through the limbic system to reach the cerebral cortex
When are endorphins released?
When there is slow pain
What are some gender differences in the sensation of pain?
women experience more clinical pain and pain-induced distress than men
papillae
bumps on the tongue that contain up to 10000 tastebuds. tastebuds are replaced every two weeks
Five Taste Sensations
sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami (savory)
Smell
one of the fives senses that helps us decide what to eat, or helps us track the source of a smell
Olfactory Epithelium
lining on the roof of the nasal cavity containing a sheet of receptor smell cells
Pathway for smell signals
travels from nose to olfactory area in temporal lobes, then to various brain regions
Kinesthetic sense
senses that provide information about movement, posture, and orientation
Location of Kinesthetic Receptors
senses are embedded in muscle fibers and joints
Vestibular sense
sense that provides information about balance and movement
proprioceptive feedback
information about the position of our limbs and body parts in relation to other body parts
semicircular canals
passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium