SI Exam 1 review
Terms in this set (61)
What would the course of study that examines the heart and the blood vessels be called?
What would the course of study that examines the superficial markings of the skin be called?
What would the course of study that examines life from conception through the first 2 months be called?
Put simply, the Principle of Complementarity says what?
"form fits function"
List the following in order from smallest to largest.
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What's the most abundant type of tissue?
Which organ system includes the heart and the blood vessels?
Which organ system absorbs nutrients and rids the body of solid waste?
True or False (if false, state why) Reproduction at the organismal level is vital for survival, but reproduction at the cellular level is not.
List the survival needs of the body (5)
Nutrients, Oxygen, water, temperature, atmospheric Pressure
True or False (if false, state why) The mere presence of these is not enough, they need to be in the correct amount
What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a stable internal environment.
Regardless of the variable being regulated, all control mechanisms must contain these 3 components.
Receptor, Control center, Effector
What two organ systems accomplish communication via nerve impulses and hormones?
Nervous System and endocrine system
The thermoreceptors in the skin sense that you're cold. They send a message to the brain indicating that the body is below optimal temperature. The brain then sends a signal to muscles all over the body to quickly contract, producing shivering. In this scenario, label the receptor, control center, & effector.
Receptor: Thermoreceptors in skin
Control Center: Brain
Effector: Skeletal Muscles
In your house, the thermometer monitors the environment's temperature. The thermostat determines the set point at which the temperature is maintained and the air conditioner/furnace responses to the thermostat. In this scenario, label the receptor, control center, & effector.
Control Center: thermostat
Effector: air conditioner
What is the purpose of negative feedback?
To shut down cycle
Give one example of negative feedback
Maintaining body temperature
What is the purpose of positive feedback?
Restart the cycle
Give one example of positive feedback.
T/F (if false state why) Inorganic compounds don't usually contain carbon/hydrogen as their primary structural ingredient.
Give 4 examples of organic compounds.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
Organic compounds usually contain what two elements?
Carbon and hydrogen
Polymers are broken down by what process?
Disaccharides are synthesized by what process?
Give one other name for hydrolysis & dehydration synthesis.
Dehydration: Combination, anabolic, endergonic
Hydrolysis: Decomposition, catabolic, exergonic
Carbohydrates are a major source of this type of cellular fuel.
Glucose, fructose, and galactose are categorized as what?
T/F (if false, state why) Lactose is a disaccharide.
Glycogen in excess is stored in the liver and these types of cells.
Lipids contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and very small amount of _______ (Which is why they're insoluble).
T/F (if false, state why) The main function is to store energy, insulate, and lower activation energy.
What's the ratio of fatty acid to glycerol?
Saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature because they have a high degree of what type of bonds?
Unsaturated fatty acids have a high degree of double bonds, which makes them _______ .
Phospholipids are amphipathic, which means that the heads are (blank) and the tails are (blank).
What is the most prominent steroid/the basis for all other steroids?
Which of these isn't an eicosanoid? (prostaglandins, keratin, leukotrienes, or thromboxanes)
What are the technical names for good & bad cholesterol?
LDLs and HDLs
What do you call a string 30 amino acids?
What type of functions do proteins have?
Structural, transport, contractile, hormonal, nervous, immune, enzymatic.
Destruction of hydrogen bonds would affect which type of structure?
Give an example of an alpha helical structure.
T/F (if false, state why) Collagen is the most abundant protein.
Globular proteins take which of the 4 types of structures?
What is protein denaturation?
Change in Protein shape due to extreme conditions.
T/F (if false, state why) Chaperonins act as biological catalysts.
Heat shock proteins are classified as what?
What are released during stressful stimuli?
Enzymes can be classified as what?
What do enzymes do?
Speed up reactions and lower activation rate.
Anything that's an enzyme ends in these three letters
What do coenzymes do?
Inorganic compounds needed for an enzyme to function.
T/F (if false, state why) DNA & RNA are the largest molecules in the body
The building blocks of nucleic acids include what?
What are the four bases that make up DNA?
Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine
What is genetic info coded in a sequence of?
What are the three types of RNA?
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What are the four bases that make up RNA?
T/F (if false, state why) ATP is an adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with an additional phosphate group.
What's the reason that ATP has so much energy?
The high energy phosphate bonds release energy when they're broken down.