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AP Psychology Unit 8 - Motivation and Emotion
Terms in this set (40)
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.
an emotional release. The hypothesis for this maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with objective measures (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease.
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases—alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
Coronary Heart Disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system. The B type of this form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; The T type of this form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
Basal Metabolic Rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
Sexual Response Cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional levels in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
An individual's normal state of being (ex., normal state of hunger)
the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases (U-Shaped)
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