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Conditioning & Learning Exam #2
Terms in this set (39)
fixed action pattern
inherited series of interrelated acts or behaviors. biologically based, not learned. (e.g. web building by spiders, nut burying by squirrels)
a specific stimuli that elicits a fixed action pattern
conditioned taste aversion
could have a seperation of CS and UCS (could be hours to days) unique because it occurs after a single trial.
The USC is an event/stimulus that an organism seeks out or approaches. (e.g. in drug addiction... room you shoot up in, junkie friends, needles are appetitive stimuli because they are associated with getting high)
The UCS is something an organism avoids. usually occur within 1 or 2 trials, more rapid if aversive stimuli is strong. (e.g. pain, gross smell, shock)
suppression of ongoing behavior produced by the presentation of a CS that has been conditioned to elicit fear through association with an aversive US
CS comes to elicit a CR (CS+)
CS comes to prevent the occurrance of a CR (CS-). only meaningful within an excitatory context.
Temporal Relationships of Conditioning (contiguity)
delayed conditioning, trace conditioning, simultaneous conditioning, backward conditioning, temporal conditioning.
CS onset preceeds UCS onset with temporal overlap between them. more robust conditioning than trace
CS onset and CS offset occurs prior to UCS onset. requires organism to remember the CS occurred before the UCS.
where CS preceeds UCS. delayed and trace conditioning. (e.g. bell before food.. helps us prepare)
CS onset and offset occur at the same time as the UCS
the UCS precedes the CS (e.g. food is administered and then the bell) not usually effective.
the UCS is presented at equal intervals. no overt CS. (time serves as covert CS) (e.g. no bell that follows food)
when the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, extinction occurs. It is a new learning
3 threats to extinction
renewal effect, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement.
variable that predicts renewal is context. (e.g. rehab in cali works, but when you come back home relapse happens due to context)
the CR reappears after a rest period (time away from extinction) the primary variable here is the passage of time.
independent presentation of UCS after extinction is enough to reenergize associations of the CS
one event predicts another, if CS then UCS.
time between CS and UCS
which is more important, contiguity or contingency? says who?
contingency is more important according to rescorla.
the elicitation of a CR to a stimulus similar to one used during acquisition.
coming to respond to some stimuli and not others
stimulus substitution theory
Cs can come to substitute for the UCS. 2 pathways: S-S and S-R
prepatory response theory
proposes that the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the US. better than stimulus substitution theory.
conditioning a CR to be in opposition to a UCR. a CS that has been repeatdely associated with a primary response (a-process) to a UCS will eventually come to elicit a compensatory response (b-process)
higher order conditioning
extremely beneficial conditioning prep. in which already conditioned CS train new, unconditioned CS. usually elicits a weaker response than CS1
reflects our tendency to make associations prior to conditioning. when one stimulus is conditioned as a CS, another stimulus with which it was previously paired can also become a CS.
an unfamiliar stimulus is more likely to be conditioned as a CS than a familiar stimulus
salience of stimuli predict conditioning, thereby interfering with the conditioning of the less salient members of the NS group.
the presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS.
a procedure in which a stimulus signals whether a CS is likely to be followed by a UCS and thereby controls whether the CS will elicit a CR
learning that an event signals the absence pf the UCS
inhibition of delay
the prevention of a response to the CS until just prior to the UCS in a trace conditioning paradigm.
a decrease in the strength of a CR due to the presentation of a novel stimulus at the same time as the CS
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
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