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AP Psychology Unit 8A/B
Terms in this set (70)
From what perspectives do psychologists view motivated behavior?
The instinct/evolutionary perspective influences on complex behaviors.
Drive-reduction theory explores how physiological needs create aroused tension states that direct us to satisfy those needs.
Arousal theory proposes a motivation for behaviors, that do not reduce physiological needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes a pyramid of human needs.
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaior
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and the psychological needs become active
list Maslow's hierarchy of needs (bottom - top)
What physiological factors produce hunger?
Hunger pangs correspond to the stomach's contractions, but it has other causes.
Appetite hormones include insulin (controls blood glucose), leptin (secreted by fat cells), orexin (secreted by the hypothalamus), ghrelin (secreted by an empty stomach), obestatin (secreted by the stomach), and PYY (secreted by digestive tract).
Two ares of the hypothalamus regulate the body's weight by affecting hunger and satiety.
The body might have a set point or a looser settling point (also influenced by the environment).
A hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics; controls blood glucose
Secreted by stomach; sends out "I'm full" signals to the brain.
Digestive tract hormone; sends "I'm not hungry" signals to the brain.
A hormone produced by adipose (fat) cells that acts as a satiety factor in regulating appetite.
Hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus
a form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues . When its level is low, we feel hunger
A hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach
What psychological and cultural factors influence hunger?
Hunger also reflects learning, our memory of when we last ate, and our expectation of when we should eat again.
Some human prefer specific tastes, but we satisfy those preferences with specific foods prescribed by our situation and our culture.
Some taste preferences, such as the avoidance of new foods or of foods that have made us ill, have survival value.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
How do anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder demonstrate the influence of psychological forces on physiologically motivated behaviors?
Psychological factors may overwhelm the homeostatic drive to maintain a balanced internal state.
Cultural pressures, low self esteem, and negative emotions interact with stressful life experiences to produce eating disorders.
Twin research also indicates that these disorders may have a genetic component.
person diets and becomes usually 15% under the regular body weight, yet continues to starve
episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise, binging and purging
significant binge eating episodes followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the purging, fasting, or exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
What factors predispose some people to become and remain obese?
Lack of exercise with the abundance of high calorie food.
Body weight has been show to be genetic (in the number of fat cells and basal metabolic weight.
Pregnancy, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy; bone marrow transplantation and stem cell transplantation; diseases such as HIV, cancer, bacterial infection, and vasculitis; drugs such as ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and cyclosporine A
What stages mark the human sexual response cycle?
Masters and Johnson's four stages in the human sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution
sexual response cycle
described by masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm (which seem to have similar feelings and brain activity in males and females), and resolution (where in males orgasm is impossible again)
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man can not achieve another orgasm
Do hormones influence sexual motivation?
The female estrogen and male testosterone hormones influence human sexual behavior less directly than they influence non-human animals.
Unlike other mammalian females, women's sexuality is more responsive to testosterone level than to estrogen level.
Short-term shifts in testosterone level are normal in men, partly in response to stimulation.
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female animals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the make sex characteristics during puberty
How do internal and external stimuli influence sexual motivation?
Erotic material and other external stimuli can influence sexual motivation.
Men respond more specifically to sexual depictions involving their preferred sex.
Sexually explicit material may lead people to perceive their partner as less appealing and to devalue their relationships.
Sexual coercive material tends to increase viewers acceptance of rape and violence towards women.
Fantasies also influence sexual arousal.
What factors influence teen sexuality, pregnancy, and risk of sexually transmitted infections?
Pregnancy: ignorance, minimal communication of contraceptives with parents, partners, peers.
Guilt related to sexual activity: alcohol use, and mass media norms of unprotected and impulsive sexuality.
STIs have spread rapidly and so it has been attempted to educate teens with sex-ed.
High intelligence, religiosity, father presence, and participation in service learning programs are predictors of teen sexual restraint.
an enduring sexual attraction towards members of either one's sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual)
What has research taught us about sexual orientation?
Support for biological influences on orientation includes the presence of same sex behaviors in many animal species, straight-gay differences in body and brain characteristics, higher rates of a homosexual orientation in certain families, and a critical period of prenatal development during which exposure to certain hormones affects orientation, BUT there has been no research evidence that says environmental influences determine sexual orientation.
What evidence points to our human need to belong?
Our need to affiliate or belong-to feel connected and identified with others- had survival value for our ancestors, which may explain why humans in every society live in groups.
Because of their need to belong, people suffer when socially excluded, and they may engage in self-defeating behaviors (performing below their ability) or in antisocial behaviors.
Feeling loved activates brain reward centers.
What are the components of emotion?
Emotions are psychological responses of the whole organism involving an interplay among (1) physiological arousal (2) expressive behaviors (3) conscious experience
3 theories support different combinations of these responses: the James-Lange theory maintains that our emotional feelings follow our body's response to the emotion-inducing stimuli.
The Cannon-Bard theory proposes that our body responds to emotion at the same time that we experience the emotion.
The two-factor theory holds that our emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive arousal
a response of the whole organism involving (1) physiological arousal (2) expressive behaviors (3) conscious experience
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
the theory that and emotion-arousing stimulus triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) cognitively label the arousal
to experience emotion one must be (1) physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system?
Emotions are both psychological and physiological.
Much of the physiological activity is controlled by the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming) divisions.
Our performance on a task is usually best when arousal is moderate, though this varies with the difficulty of a task.
Do different emotions activate different psychological and brain pattern responses?
Emotions may be similarly arousing, but some subtle physiological responses, such as facial muscle movements, distinguish them.
More meaningful differences have been found in activity in the brain's pathways and cortical areas and in hormone secretion associated with different emotions.
Polygraphs measure several physiological indicators of emotion, but they are not accurate enough to justify their widespread use in business and law enforcement.
The use of guilty knowledge questions and new forms of technology may produce better indications of lying.
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and breathing changes)
To experience emotions, must we consciously interpret and label them?
Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory of emotion contends that cognitive labels we put into our states of arousal are an essential ingredient of emotion.
Lazarus agreed that cognition is essential: many important emotions arise from our interpretations of inferences.
Zajonc and LaDoux believe that some simple emotional responses occur instantly, not only outside our conscious awareness but before any cognitive processing occurs.
The interplay between emotion and cognition again illustrates our two-track minds.
How do we communicate nonverbally?
Much of our communication is through body movements, facial expressions, and voice tones.
Even seconds-long filmed slices of behavior can reveal feelings.
Women tend to be better at reading people's emotional cues.
Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood?
The meaning of gestures varies with culture, but facial expressions (happiness and fear) are common. Cultures are also differ in the amount of emotion they express
Do our facial expressions influence our feelings?
Facial feedback effect shows that our facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal the body to respond accordingly. (we also mimic others expressions, which help us empathize)
the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness
What is the function of fear, and how do we learn fears?
Feed has an adaptive value because it helps us avoid threats and when necessary, cope with them.
We are predisposed to some fears, and we learn others through conditioning and observation.
What are the causes and consequences of anger?
Anger is triggered by frustrating or insulting events but are also interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable.
Blowing off steam (catharsis) may be temporarily changing, but in the long run it does not reduce anger.
Expressing anger can make us angrier.
What are the causes and consequences of happiness?
A good mood boosts people's perceptions of the world and their willingness to help others (feel good do good phenomenon).
The moods triggered by the day's good or bad events seldom last beyond that day.
Even significant good events seldom increase happiness for long.
We can explain the relativity of happiness with the adaptive level phenomenon phenomenon and the relative deprivation principle.
Some people are usually happier than others, and researchers have identified factors that predict well-being.
emotional release - the catharsis hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along measures of objective well-being to evaluative people's quality of life
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
What is stress?
Walter Cannon viewed stress, the process by which we appraise and respond to events that challenge or threaten us, as a fight or flight system.
Hans Selye saw it as a 3 phase (alarm-resistance-exhaustion) general adaptive syndrome
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medicinal knowledge and applies that to health and disease
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
general adaption syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases - alarm, resistance, exhaustion
What events provoke stress responses?
Catastrophic events, life changes, daily hassles all provoke stress. We get stress when things are negative and uncontrollable.
Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease?
Heart disease has been linked with a Type A personality.
Under stress, the body of a reactive, hostile person secretes more of the hormones that accelerate plaque buildup of the artery walls.
Chronic stress also contributes to persistent inflammation, which heightens the risks of clogged arteries and depression.
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
term for easygoing, relaxed people
literally, mind-body illness, any stress related physical illness, such as hypertension
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system:
B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
How does stress make us more vulnerable to disease?
Stress diverts energy from the immune system, inhibiting the activities of B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells.
Does not cause AIDS or cancer, but by altering our immune function, it may make us more vulnerable to them and influence their porgression
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