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Earth's air, which is made up of a thin layer of gases, solids, and liquids, forms a protective layer around the planet and is divided into five distinct layers


group of chemical compounds used in refrigerators, air conditioners, foam packaging, and aeresol sprays that may enter the atmosphere and destroy the ozone


process in which water vapor changes to a liquid


transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into each other


transfer of heat by the flow of material

coriolis effect

causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to the Earth's rotation


all the waters of the Earth


the layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night

jet stream

narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere

land breeze

movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, less dense air form the land forces up warmer air over the sea

ozone layer

layers of the stratosphere with a high concentraion of ozone, absorbs most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation


energy transferred by waves or rays

sea breeze

movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the leated, less dense air above the land to rise


layer of Earth's atmosphere that is closest to the ground, contains 99 percent of the water vapor and 75 percent of the atmospheric gases, and is where clouds and weather occur

ultraviolet radiation

a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage the skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer

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