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Holistic Nursing Exam 2
Terms in this set (89)
what is normal heart sinus rhythm?
60-100 beats per minute
what is atrial fibrillation?
Irregular, rapid heart beat
what are patients with atrial fibrillation more prone to have?
what is ventricular fibrillation?
ventrical quivers instead of contracting fully
what is systole?
contraction of the heart
what is diastole?
relaxation and filling of the heart
what is atherosclerosis?
a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.
what is used to diagnose atherosclerosis?
serum lipid profiles
what is good cholesterol and what is bad cholesterol?
good - HDL
bad - LDL
normal LDL levels?
>160 mg/dL = CAD
normal HDL levels?
normal tryglycerides levels?
normal cholesterol levels?
>240 is high
what are some ways to prevent atherosclerosis?
-decrease fats in diet
-increase green, leafy vegetables, fiber, and fruit intake
what are the antilipemic medications?
when should statins be taken to maximize effectiveness?
in the evening because the liver synthesizes cholesterol during sleep
what are the most important side effects of statins?
muscle pain and liver problems
what are the symptoms of an MI in men?
what is the most common symptom of an MI in women?
what is the most common symptom of MI in older people?
what are normal troponin I levels?
what blood test is elevated during an MI?
on an EKG, which wave will be large during an MI?
where are cardiac catheters usually inserted through?
groin or femoral artery
what is an angiogram?
a clinical procedure in which a dye is injected into a persons blood stream so that the vessels of the heart can be viewed
what nursing care should be taken to prevent kidney damage for a patient having an angiogram?
keep them hydrated so dye doesn't harm kidneys
what is an angioplasty?
surgical repair or unblocking of a blood vessel, especially a coronary artery that uses a balloon
what suffix indicates a drug is a beta blocker (slows heart rate, decreases workload on heart)?
what are the main side effects of beta blockers?
bradycardia, dizziness, hypotension, headache, mood changes
what suffix indicates ACE inhibitors?
what are the main side effects of ACE inhibitors?
cough, loss of taste, orthostatic hypotension
what suffix indicates thiazides (decrease sodium and chloride re-absorption in convoluted tubules)?
-azide (HCTZ is a thiazide)
what are some important side effects of thiazides?
-increase in blood sugar
-increase in lipid and uric acid levels
-dizziness, GI upset, photosensitivity
what is the most common loop diuretic?
what are some side effects of loop diuretics?
electrolyte imbalance, leg cramps, increased uric acid and lipid levels
what supplement is given to people on loop diuretics?
What kind of diuretic is spironolactone (Aldactone)?
potassium sparing (at risk for hyperkalemia)
what makes Aldactone more effective?
pairing with a thiazide
what are some side effects of resins (colestipol - anti lipid drug that binds to bile in intestines)?
constipation, peptic ulcers
what nursing interventions are needed for a patient on resins?
increase fluid & fiber intake
what do thrombolytics do?
what is a major side effect of thrombolytics?
what are modifiable risk factors for CAD?
smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, psychological factors, oral contraceptives
what are non modifiable risk factors for CAD?
family history, age, gender, culture and ethnicity
what should you teach patients on nitrates to do if they experience chest pain?
take 1 sublingual if having chest pain then call 911, wait 5 minutes between each dose for no more than 3 doses
what are normal side effects of nitroglycerin?
headache, dizziness, faintness
what is the difference between stable and unstable angina?
stable angina happens during certain activities and goes away with rest
unstable angina happens more frequently, lasts longer, and does not go away with rest
what is essential hypertension?
high blood pressure with no identifiable cause
aka primary hypertension
what is secondary hypertension?
hypertension secondary to a disease like diabetes or pregnancy
what suffix indicates calcium channel blockers (alter electrical system of heart by blocking calcium movement)?
what is a side effect of calcium channel blockers?
when taking calcium channel blockers what beverage should patients avoid because it increases absorption?
what is the only cardiac glycoside?
what is the therapeutic level for digoxin for HF? for arrhythmia?
what are signs of dig toxicity?
-yellow halos, visual changes, bradycardia
what can be done to minimize the risk for dig toxicity?
encourage foods high it potassium
for iron deficient patients and those with sickle cell anemia, what is odd about their tongues?
they can become very red and beefy
when giving iron supplements, what increases absorption and what should be avoided?
orange juice increases absorption, milk should be avoided
patients with pernicious anemia will need what for the rest of their life?
b12 injections (better than oral meds)
patients with sickle cell anemia have clotting and pain in what parts of the body?
what are nursing considerations for patients with sickle cell anemia?
keep hydrated, keep fevers down, make sure O2 needs are met, and that they are warm
hemophiliacs have what problem with their blood?
cannot clot, prone to bleed into joints
what kind of compress can you give to hemophiliacs on their joints to relieve pain?
what do venous ulcers look like?
jagged, irregular borders and they have more drainage
what do arterial ulcers look like?
"punched out" appearance
when giving a blood transfusion, you should stop the transfusion for any reaction except?
what should you do if a patient has circulatory overload while receiving a blood transfusion?
slow down the rate of transfusion
what can a blood transfusion be hung with?
only 0.9% normal saline
how long should you stay with a patient while administering a blood transfusion?
for the first 15 minutes of blood actually entering body
what are some symptoms of arterial problems?
-muscle ache, cramping
-diminished or absent pulses
-pinker in color in dependent postion
how should legs be positioned when patient has arterial problems?
down, in dependent position
what are some symptoms of venous problems?
-skin is dry, warm, thick, and tough
-dark skin pigmentation
how should legs be positioned when the patient is having venous problems?
elevated to relieve pain
what are normal hemoglobin (HgB) levels?
what are normal hematocrit levels?
what are normal RBC levels?
what are normal WBC levels?
5000 to 10,000 mm3
what is the biggest complication of a bone marrow aspiration biopsy?
why is a bone marrow biopsy done?
establish a diagnosis and determine the size, number, and shape of blood cells
what is polycythemia?
too many RBCs
what can cause polycythemia?
lack of O2
what are signs and symptoms of circulatory overload in patient receiving a blood transfusion?
-distended jugular vein
-increased trouble breathing
what are the signs and symptoms of a febrile reaction in a patient receiving a blood transfusion?
what are the signs and symptoms of a hemolytic reaction in a patient receiving a blood transfusion?
-back and chest pain
what are the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction in a patient receiving a blood transfusion?
-facial and orbital swelling
-pt states face "feels funny"
what are signs and symptoms of sepsis in a patient receiving a blood transfusion?
-rapid BP drop
what is the purpose of a chest tube?
Restore negative pressure in the pleural space.
what should you check the skin around a chest tube for?
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