16 terms

Chapter 12 Introduction to Genetics

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genetics
The scientific study of heredity
fertilization
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
trait
specific characteristic of an individual
hybrid
Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Allele
An alternative form of a gene.
principle of dominance
Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
segregation
Separation of alleles during gamete formation
gamete
sex cell
P generation
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 generation
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F2 generation
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
dominant allele
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
recessive allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait