53 terms

Unit 10 - Blood

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D, F, G - eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil
Which cells are granulocytes?
A - red blood cells
Which cell type is also called an erythrocyte?
G - basophils
Which cell type is the least common in a normal human blood smear?
F - neutrophil
Which of the leukocytes is the most common?
A - erythrocytes
Which cell type increases under the influence of EPO (erythropoietin)?
D - eosinophil
Which granulocyte increases with allergy and some parasitic infections?
B, E - monocytes, lymphocytes
Which two leukocytes are agranulocytes?
C - thrombocytes (platelets)
Which letter responds to the hormone thrombopoietin and are cell fragments?
E - lymphocyte
T-cells and B-cells are this type of leukocyte.
B - monocyte
This leukocyte transforms to become a macrophage.
G - basophil
This leukocyte releases histamines and may contain heparin.
A - erythrocytes
This cell type contains hemoglobin.
B
Which cell is a lymphocyte?
A
Which cell is an erythrocyte?
C
Which cell is a neutrophil?
hematocrit
the percentage of erythrocytes to total blood volume.
monocyte
large single-nucleus white blood cell; agranular leukocyte; transforms into a macrophage; phagocytic
formed elements
cellular portion of blood.
fibrinogen
a blood protein that is converted to fibrin during blood clotting.
plasma
the nonliving fluid component of blood within which formed elements and various solutes are suspended and circulated; the blood's matrix
neutrophil
most abundant type of white blood cell; phagocytic; active in acute infections, especially bacterial
basophil
white blood cell whose granules stain deep blue with basic dye; has a relatively pale nucleus. release histamine and contains heparin
embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus (blood clot, fatty mass, bubble of air, or other debris) floating in the blood; a moving thrombus
polycythemia
an excessive or abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes.
fibrin
fibrous insoluble protein formed during blood clotting; polymer of fibrinogen
thrombus
a clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel.
diapedesis
passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissue.
hematopoiesis
blood cell formation
eosinophil
granular white blood cell whose granules readily take up a stain called eosin; increase in number during parasitic worm infections
hemoglobin
oxygen-transporting component of erythrocytes; contains iron
platelet
cell fragment found in blood; involved in clotting; also called a thrombocyte
anemia
reduced oxygen-carrying ability of blood resulting from too few erythrocytes or abnormal hemoglobin.
prothrombin
a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin; made by the liver
Type AB
universal recipient blood type
Type O
universal donor blood type
vitamin K
a fat-soluble vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood; required for the manufacture of some clotting factors
megakaryocytes
the large multinucleate cells that platelets are fragments of
hemostasis
to stop or control bleeding
heparin
a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibit the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood
agglutination
blood clumping or bacteria clumping, due to antibodies sticking to each other
antigen
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies; elicits an immune response
albumin
are the smallest of the plasma proteins, yet account for 60% of these proteins by weight; involved in maintaining osmotic pressure
erythropoietin (EPO)
a hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
histamine
substance released by damaged cells that increases blood flow to the area, causing an inflammatory process involving heat, redness, swelling, and pain
eosinophil
a granular leukocyte, with a bi-lobed nucleus, that increases with allergy and some parasitic infections, especially parasitic worms
lymphocyte
involved in specific immunity and include two cell types, B-cells and T cells. B-cells produce and secrete antibodies and T-cells are invovled in cellular immunity.
ABO blood groups
genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells
antibody
antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells; also called a gamma globulin
buffy coat
thin, whitish layer at the junction between the formed elements and the plasma; contains leukocytes and platelets
hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes)
positive chemotaxis
movement toward a chemical stimulus
Rh blood groups
classified blood type as + or - based on the presence or absence of an RBC surface antigen; significant in transfusions and pregnancy
thrombopoietin (TPO)
hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation