82 terms

Unit 11 - Heart Anatomy, Unit 11 - The Cardiovascular System

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pulmonary trunk
Structure 8 is the?
left atrium
Structure 2 is the?
inferior vena cava
Structure 6 is the?
right pulmonary veins
Structures 11 are the?
left ventricle
Structure 4 is the?
right pulmonary artery
Structure 10 is the?
superior vena cava
Structure 5 is the?
left pulmonary artery
Structure 9 is the?
right atrium
Structure 1 is the?
right ventricle
Structure 3 is the?
inferior vena cava
Structure 6 is the?
apex
Structure 14 is the?
ligamentum arteriosum
Structure 15 is the?
left pulmonary veins
Structures 12 are the?
coronaries
Structure 13 is the?
deoxygenated
What is the oxygen state of the blood carried by vessel 8, oxygenated or deoxygenated?
oxygenated
What is the oxygen state of the blood carried by vessels 11 and 12, oxygenated or deoxygenated?
intercalated disc
What is structure A?
gap junction
What type of junction is structure A?
cardiac muscle
What type of muscle tissue does this picture show?
cardiac output
amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle in one minute.
pulmonary circulation
system of blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange.
myocardium
layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle.
tachycardia
a heart rate over 100 beats per minute.
purkinje fibers
modified cardiac muscle fibers of the conduction system of the heart.
veins
blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the circulation.
diastole
period of the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or the atria are relaxing.
peripheral resistance
a measure of the amount of friction encountered by blood as it flows through the blood vessels.
systemic circulation
system of blood vessels that carries nutrient and oxygen-rich blood to all body organs.
bradycardia
a heart rate below 60 beats per minute.
pericardium
double-layered serosa enclosing the heart and forming its superficial layer.
vasoconstriction
narrowing of blood vessels.
arteries
vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
capillaries
the smallest of the blood vessels and the sites of exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
renin
enzyme released by the kidneys that is involved with raising blood pressure
tunica externa
outer layer of a blood vessel which connects it to surrounding tissues
tunica media
middle layer of artery; made up of smooth muscle fibers and thick layer of elastic connective tissue
tunica intima
This is the name for the inner endothelial lining of blood vessels that includes a thin connective tissue layer as well
blood pressure
measurement of the force exerted by the heart against the arterial walls when the heart contracts and relaxes; systole/diastole
endocardium
the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
epicardium
visceral layer of serous pericardium
stroke volume
the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat
electrocardiogram
a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease
coronary artery
the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
bicuspid valve
also known as the mitral valve, is the left atrioventricular valve. It consists of two cusps of endocardium.
chordae tendineae
tendinous strings that extend from the cusps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles of the heart, thus preventing valve inversion.
apex
point, tip of heart; rests on diaphragm
arterioles
blood vessels that are smaller branches off of arteries
atria
2 upper chambers of the heart
atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His)
extends from the AV node into and through the interventricular septum
atrioventricular (AV) node
relays the impulse to contract from the atria to the ventricles; delays signal 0.1 seconds
base of heart
broader area of heart's outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostal space; blood vessels enter and exit
ductus arteriosus
a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta
ductus venosus
blood entering the fetus through the umbillical vein is conducted via the ductus venosus into the interior vena cava to bypass the hepatic circulation
foramen ovale
connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart
hepatic portal circulation
transfers nutrient rich blood from intestinal capillary bed to a hepatic capillary bed
interventricular septum
wall that separates the right and left ventricles
intrinsic conduction system
SA node, AV node, Av bundle, right and left bundle branches, perkinje fibers; coordinates the heart's basic rhythm
ligamentum arteriosum
remnant of the prenatal ductus arteriosis
mediastinum
central compartment of the thoracic cavity; contains the heart, the great vessels of the heart, esophagus, trachea, phrenic nerve, cardiac nerve, thoracic duct, thymus, and lymph nodes of the central chest
sinoatrial (SA) node
pacemaker of the heart; located in the right atrium wall
systole
contraction of the heart
valves
flap of tissue in the heart between large arteries/chambers that prevents blood from flowing backwards
angiotensin II
vasoconstrictor; stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
aldosterone
hormone that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium ions and water
pulmonary veins
Deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
pulmonary arteries
carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and to the lungs
vena cava
either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart
semilunar valves
pulmonary valve and aortic valve; the "dup" sound of the heart beat
pulmonary trunk
blood leaving the right ventricle enters this vessel after passing through the pulmonary semilunar valve
AV valves
tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) valves; between atria and ventricles
P wave
atrial depolarization
QRS complex
ventricular depolarization
T wave
ventricular repolarization
ADH
antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); water reabsorption by the kidneys; increases blood volume and blood pressure
CO
= SV x HR
BP
= CO x PR
coronary arteries
blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
fibrillation
rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contractions of the atria or ventricles
diastolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles are relaxed; the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery
systolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles contract; the highest pressure against the walls of an artery