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18 terms

Chapter 6 Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction

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Cell Cycle
the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
Mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm
Spindle
(biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Binary fusion
A form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring.
Gene
A segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule.
Chromosome
The DNA and the proteins associated with the DNA
Chromatid
The two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome.
Centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
Diploid
of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
Zygote
fertilized egg
Autosome
any chromosome other than a sex chromosome
Sex chromosome
one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes, which determine an individual's gender
Karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)