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Final EXAM Psych 311

One implication of Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory is that to understand development, one must:

Consider the individual and the different levels of sociocultural contexts with which he or she interacts.

Development includes:

Growth and decline.

Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data.

Surveys can be used to study a wide range of topics and can collect data from a large number of people. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. A disadvantage to survey research is that people sometimes respond in ways that they think is socially acceptable rather than to say what they honestly think and believe.

A way of measuring age that is defined as the number of years that have elapsed since birth.

chronological age

The developmental issue (controversy) over whether development is influenced by biology or environment.

nature-nurture issue

The developmental issue (controversy) over the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist throughout life or change.

stability-change issue

The macrosystem is defined as the culture in which an individual lives. Which of the following would NOT be included in one's culture?

eye color

Professor Weinstein teaches his life-span psychology students that each stage of development from birth to old age involves significant changes. Professor Weinstein is taking a(n): __________ approach.


According to Jean Piaget, this stage is marked by the development of logical, organized reasoning skills.

formal operational

A person's position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

socioeconomic status

Lynn Hasher and her colleagues (2001) found that age-related memory differences declined when __________ was taken into consideration.

time of day

A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for 8 weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:

number of minutes on the treadmill

Thomas Hess and his colleagues (2003) found that age-related memory differences declined when __________ was taken into consideration.

relevance of material

The concept of continuity is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:

qualitative change.

Turner syndrome occurs in approximately ________ live births.

1 in 2,500

Robert Plomin argues that nonshared environmental influences produce different personalities among siblings. Which of the following would be considered a nonshared environmental influence?

peer groups

This is a prenatal medical procedure where high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women's abdomen.

ultrasound sonography

Shakena is a 38-year-old single woman who works as a pharmaceutical representative. Although she would like to be married, there is no special person in her life right now. She would like to adopt a child. Recent changes in adoption regulations would mean that:

she would be considered as a candidate for adopting a child.

For eyes, brown color is dominant and blue color is recessive. Maria carries two genes for brown eyes, and John carries two genes for blue eyes. Their child will have a:

100% chance of having brown eyes.

Don and Ellie are trying to conceive a baby. How long should they wait before they suspect infertility?

12 months

As the benefits of evolution decrease, the need for culture increases. Which of the following is NOT a culture-based resource for older adults?

social support, medical technology, cognitive training and support

By definition, evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of:

adaptive behavior.

Evolution takes place:

over many generations.

A recessive gene can only assert itself when:

both genes in a pair are recessive.

A psychological perspective that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior.

evolutionary psychology

All of a person's genetic makeup.


A prenatal test designed to assess whether a fetus is developing normally. With this procedure, high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women's abdomen. The echo from the sounds is transformed into a visual representation of the fetus's inner structures.

ultrasound or ultrasound sonography

While Sally's mother was pregnant with her, she smoked and drank alcohol which adversely effected Sally's lung development. After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents who smoked. As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder. The development of this disorder could be explained by the concept of:

the epigenetic view.

Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:

Turner syndrome.

Don and Ellie are trying to conceive a baby. How long should they wait before they suspect infertility?

12 months

Maternal contraction of rubella (German measles) can lead to all of the following EXCEPT:


The innovative prenatal care program Centering Pregnancy:

provides prenatal care in group settings.

Which of the following statements about prenatal care is TRUE?

Prenatal care includes classes and educational programs about pregnancy, Prenatal care may include information on breast feeding and bottle feeding, Prenatal care may include information on preparing for birth and infant care

The Apgar Scale uses which of the following measures?

newborn's heart rate

Research suggests that mothers who drink more than 300 milligrams of caffeine a day increase their unborn baby's risk of:

fetal death

Annabel drinks about two cups of brewed coffee a day. Her baby has an increased risk of:

a low birth weight.

Giovanna was found to be Rh incompatible with her first child. To prevent her body from producing antibodies that will attack any future Rh-incompatible fetuses, her doctor gave her:


Before delivery of her baby, Jawhara experiences several traumatic life changes. She separates from her husband, discovers that her mother is seriously ill, and begins a more stressful job. Will Jawhara's baby be significantly affected by all the stress in Jawhara's life?

Yes, the baby will be at risk for ADHD and language delays

Linda's baby is about to be born. The baby's head is at the top of the uterus, and the baby's lower extremities are on the cervix. This situation is:

called a breech position.

The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _______.

emergence of the child's head; delivery of the child out of the mother

The lack of ______ in maternal nutrition has been associated with neural tube defects in offspring.

folic acid

Angelo is 7 years old and has been diagnosed with a learning disability. In addition, he often seems highly excitable and is impulsive. It is possible that Angelo's mother used _______ while pregnant.


Yan Yan is 17, a moderate drinker, and pregnant. Research would suggest that her child may:

have a preterm birth.

The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth.


This French obstetrician developed the prepared childbirth method.

Ferdinand Lamaze

This is one of the life-support systems of the embryo. It is a bag or envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats.


Sarah is a 20-year-old college student who is paralyzed from her waist down. She can walk with difficulty with crutches but prefers her wheelchair. Sarah tells you that her condition is due to a birth defect. Which of the following birth defects did Sarah MOST likely have?

spina bifida

Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor told her that she should:

stop taking Accutane immediately.

Sidney is expecting her first child. She has just recently begun to feel kicking movements. Sidney is most likely in the ________ month of her pregnancy.


According to a recent study of more than 3,000 4- to 24-month-olds, which of the following statements about the nutritional status of babies in the United States is TRUE?

By 15 months, French fries were the most common vegetable that babies ate.

At birth, the newborn's brain is about __________ of its adult weight.


A decreased responsiveness to a stimulus that has been repeatedly presented.


The acronym "SIDS" stands for:

sudden infant death syndrome.

The receiving of information from the surrounding environment is called __________.


The theory that states that we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us is __________.


Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Following birth, some synaptic connections become strengthened and survive, whereas unused ones are replaced by other pathways or disappear.

Which of the following statements about infants and REM sleep is TRUE?

REM sleep may promote the brain's development in infancy.

The experience of our world as a smooth episode is made possible by:

intermodal perception.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the hemispheric specialization of speech in the cerebral cortex of the brain?

For most people, speech and grammar is localized in the left hemisphere, and the use of metaphor and humor is localized in the right hemisphere.

Briefly explain the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development.

The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the greatest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working its way down from top to bottom. The proximodistal pattern is the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities.

Marty is developing rapidly in her size and abilities to sit and stand. Many of the reflexes with which she was born are fading, but she is not yet able to climb or ride on riding toys. Marty is probably in the __________ of life.

first year

Kai is 2 years old and weighs 30 pounds. She is __________ for her age.

within the normal range

The cerebral cortex has two __________, and each half is further divided into the four __________.

hemispheres; lobes

You are visiting Chile on your vacation. While you are there, you see a child on the side of the street begging for money and holding a sign that reads "Need money for food—malnourished." You look at the child and think that he looks normal; then you suddenly remember what you learned in a life-span development class and conclude that the child must have:


The ways that words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences in a language.


Behaviorists believe that language is:

learned through reinforcement.

Ben's grandmother gives him a shirt that she knows he has been admiring. When he opens her gift, he smiles and says, "This is so sick; thanks Gram!!" Ben's grandmother does not know what he means by "sick." Obviously Ben and his grandmother do not share the same ideas about __________.


"House tree could be learn fat left grass," Mary said. Mary has likely received brain damage to:

Wernike's area.

Define Phonology.

Rules governing the sound system of language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined.

Define Morphology.

Rules governing the units of meaning involved in word formation

Define Syntax.

Rules governing the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.

Define Semantics.

Rules governing the meaning of words and sentences.

Define pragmatics.

Rules governing the appropriate use of language in different contexts.

According to Jean Piaget, this is the second substage of sensorimotor thought. This substage is apparent in children between about 1 month to 4 months of age. Two primary schemes are apparent. First, the infant repeats an action that was once associated with a reflex, but is now completely separated from its eliciting stimulus (e.g., sucking when no bottle or nipples are present). Second, after accidentally causing an interesting event with one's own body (e.g., kicking feet), the infant repeats the action many times.

first habits and primary circular reactions

Which of the following statements regarding first words is NOT correct?

Infants recognize their name by age 3 months.

List (in order) Jean Piaget's six substages of sensorimotor thought

1. Simple Reflexes.
2. First habits and primary circular reactions.
3. Secondary Circular Reactions.
4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions.
5. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, curiosity.
6. Internalization of schemes.

Antonio swings his arms while lying in his crib. One of his arms accidentally hits the mobile hanging above him. This causes the mobile to begin to move. Antonio continues to swing his arms but is unable to strike the mobile again. This is an example of a:

primary circular reaction

Jean Piaget used detailed observation of his own children to develop his theory of:

cognitive development.

Which of the following has been associated with children's vocabulary development?

All of these.

Jean Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order cognitive system.


According to Jean Piaget, a scheme that is characterized by the infant attempting to reproduce a bodily event (e.g., kicking own feet) that initially occurred by chance.

Primary circular reaction

A _______ is an internal sensory image or word that represents an event.


Phonology is to __________ as morphology is to __________.

sound; meaning

According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament:

is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment.

This theorist was interested in individual differences in attachment and developed the observational measure called the Strange Situation in order to formulate and test his/her theories.

Mary Ainsworth

Jerome Kagan's way of classifying temperament that focuses on the differences between a shy, timid child and a sociable, extraverted child.

inhibition to the unfamiliar

Socialization that is bidirectional; that is, children socialize parents just as parents socialize children.

reciprocal socialization

Daniel and Guadalupe are angry with one another because of differences in their spending habits. Guadalupe snaps at their daughter and sends her to her room even though the little girl is not misbehaving. According to Jay Belsky's description of family interactions, this situation is an example of:

an indirect influence of the marital relationship on the child.

Which type of smiling occurs as a response to an external stimulus?

social smiling

A type of "baby cry" that is characterized by a sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning followed by breath holding.

Pain Cry

In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as:

insecure avoidant.

This theorist stressed the importance of "contact comfort" in the development of attachment between an infant and his or her caregiver.

Harry Harlow

At what age does separation protest peak?

15 months

A criticism of attachment theory is that:

other factors may be more important to an infant's adaptations to life.

The ability to inhibit, or minimize, the intensity and duration of emotional reactions.

Emotional regulation

Jerome Kagan's classification of temperament focuses on:

inhibition to the unfamiliar.

When parents select and attend to certain behaviors, initially demonstrating them for their child, then gradually turning over more of the responsibility for the behavior to the child, the parents are engaging in:


Kyoko and Jason are going to have a child. Statistically speaking, their child will most likely have a(n) _______ temperament.


In Central European countries, such as Hungary, teachers are developing exercises designed to improve:

students' attention.

Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will:

help the boys develop gross motor skills.

Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:


Define and discuss one effect of myelination.

Myelination is the process by which nerve cells become covered with a layer of fat cells. Myelination has the effect of increasing the speed and the efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system. Myelination is related to a number of abilities in children, including hand-eye coordination.

Myelination is important in development because:

children cannot perform certain functions if the area of the brain controlling those functions is not myelinated.

What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?

ethnic origin and nutrition

Early childhood education curriculum design is at the center of a controversy between those who believe it should take a constructivist approach, and those who believe in the direct instruction approach. Lilian Katz argues that they are both overlooking children's:

opportunity to actively construct knowledge

Which child will find the task of arranging objects in a precise pattern on a table most challenging?

a 3-year-old

"My computer doesn't like me—it keeps eating my pictures," says Sarah. This is an example of _______.


Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Vygotsky's theory?

he overemphasized autonomy and self-discovered learning

An overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death due to:

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

The awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

Theory of Mind

A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:

the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.

Briefly describe the characteristics of the Montessori and child-centered kindergarten approaches to early childhood education.

In the Montessori approach, children are allowed considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities. They are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire. The teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director of learning. (b) Child-centered kindergarten education involves the whole child and includes concern for the child's physical, cognitive, and social development.

The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective is known as _______.


Parenting styles are a negotiation between:

responsiveness and demands.

Play therapy is used for all of the following reasons:

1. To allow the child to work of frustrations.
2. To analyze the child's conflicts.
3. To analyze the child's way of coping.

Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:

there is greater pressure for boys.

Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game, yelling, "You can't do that! You can't change rules!" Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning?

heteronomous morality

The primary social theories of gender include all of the following EXCEPT:

evolutionary psychology view.

According to Jean Piaget, this is the first stage of moral development. Children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world.

heteronomous morality

According to Jean Piaget, this is the second stage of moral development. Children become aware that rules and laws are created by people.

autonomous morality

List four characteristics that are generally associated with the firstborn child. Discuss what accounts for these differences.

Firstborn children are more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, and self-controlled than later-born children. They may also have more guilt, more anxiety, and more difficulty coping with life's stressors. Parents have higher expectations of firstborn children and place more pressure on them for achievement and responsibility.

Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us understand moral behavior of children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?

Punishment will always increase modeling of moral behavior.

Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because:

it advances the child's cognitive development.

The sense of self as being either male or female is known as:

gender identity.

The term child maltreatment includes all of the following possibilities EXCEPT:

tough love.

Research studies conducted in 2007 by UNICEF suggest that:

in most cultures, men have a higher status and more power than women do.

What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?

an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age

In general in the United States, African American and Latino family orientations DIFFER from white family orientations in that:

the extended family plays a greater role in African American and Latino families.

Compared with earlier and later periods, middle age is influenced most by _________ factors.


The average adult in middle adulthood __________ height and __________ weight.

loses; gains

Larry is a normal 45-year-old male. Which of the following is Larry MOST likely to be experiencing?

loss in sight and hearing

Forty-five-year-old Angie loves going to the symphony, but she has been complaining that lately the quality of the symphony is not as good as it was a few years ago. Angie may be experiencing the middle-age decline in her:

sensitivity to high-pitched sounds.

Diabetes is to Latinos as __________ is to African Americans.

high blood pressure

An adult in middle age will do most POORLY on which of the following tasks?

hitting the brakes when the light turns red

Michelle is upset because she believes that her memory has been getting worse since she entered middle age. She finds it harder to remember a grocery list or telephone number, though she does not have difficulty with information she uses often, such as her address or Social Security number. Which of the following is probably TRUE about Michelle?

Michelle is typical of middle-aged person in her ability to remember information.

Which of the following is TRUE of novices and experts?

Experts process information more automatically than novices.

One reason that leisure is important in middle adulthood is that:

it prepares middle-aged adults for retirement.

What percentage of Americans considers themselves to be religious?


In Erik Erikson's theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of _______.


"I did it myyyyy way," the singer crooned. Which theory of adult development might this singer prefer?

an individual variations theory

The _________ approach emphasizes life events and mediating factors to help explain individual development.

contemporary life events

According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, in early adulthood _________ INCREASES.

openness to experience

What are the two major forms of love?

romantic and affectionate

Allan and Jan are a middle-aged couple going through a divorce. They have both agreed that divorce is the best solution for them. Which of the following is likely?

Both Allen and Jan will be better able to use the divorce as a way to make positive changes in their lives than they could have several years ago.

In general, the situation of adult children living in their parents' home is MOST successful when:

parents and children agree to treat one another as adults.

Ron and his sister, Sarah, are both in their mid-50s and have a close personal relationship. Most research on sibling relationships suggests that:

they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.

Which of the following statements about intergenerational relations is TRUE?

Intergenerational transmission of conduct disorder showed a higher connection for males than for females.

Roger is 35 years old and has been married for 9 years. According to national trends, with whom does he spend the most time?

his wife's parents

Why is life expectancy for women longer than for men?

Women engage in fewer high-risk behaviors.

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