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PSY 374 Exam 1
Introduction, Research Methods, Behavioral Learning Theory, Operant Conditioning
Terms in this set (73)
What is the formula that explains behaviors?
B = E x B' Behavior is a function of the interaction of environmental variables and biological variables
Isn't teaching just common sense?
Sometimes what seems to be common sense may not be right
Shouldn't I just do what feels right to me and what works for me?
Sometimes what seems to be intuitive or obvious may not be correct.
Looks at what happens in between the time that the instruction was given and the event occurs
What was the Benjamin, Cavell, & Schallenberger study about?
What college faculty thought about changing answers on a multiple choice test and whether it actually did to the score
What was the result of the B, C, & S Study?
Faculty and students believed that changing the answer hurt the score, but research showed that changing the answer generally increased the score.
Is there a difference between beliefs and actual research-based results?
What are the 2 research methods?
descriptive/correlational research and experimental research
What is the goal of descriptive correlational research?
To observe and describe behavior and discover links or associations between variables
What is the weakness of descriptive/correlational research?
It doesn't explain the causes of behavior.
How many different measures does correlational research always have?
What is correlation?
It is an index or estimate of how two factors or two variables are related.
True or False: The closer the correlation coefficient is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship is and the closer to zero it is, the weaker the relationship.
What does the sign of the correlational coefficient show?
the direction of the relationship
Both variables change in the same direction
Both variables change in opposite direction
True or False: All correlations involve relationship between two variables or measures.
What is a perfect correlation?
+1 or -1
Does correlation mean causation?
What does all correlation mean?
that two variables are related
What are the 3 possibilities for a correlation?
A caused B, B caused A, C accounts for both A and B
What are experimental studies?
They allow us to draw conclusions about cause and effect. We manipulate variables in particular ways and then measure the effects of these manipulations on behavior.
Why do we assign groups for experimental studies randomly?
So that individual differences are evenly distributed. This way the group doesn't differ in any systematic way before we start.
The variable that is manipulated or changed to see its effects on some outcome variable or measure; what the experimenter wants to study
Is usually some behavior that is measure or observed; it's an outcome variable or measure that is effected by the independent variable
The extent to which the results of an experiment or study can be attributed to the independent variable only.
The extent to which the results of an experiment or study can be generalized to different groups of subjects, different settings, etc.
What are the strengths of experimental research?
Conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn
What are the weaknesses of experimental research?
artificial nature of experiments and ethical and practical issues
Who is the father of American Behavioral Psychology?
What is learning?
A relatively durable or permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience
What are the 2 types of learning or conditioning?
classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Who discovered classical conditioning?
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
Who discovered operant conditioning?
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
What is classical conditioning?
It deals with reflexes, antecedent events, and based on the individual learning that 2 things/stimuli go together. It looks at events that occur before a response even occurs.
True or False: Pavlov discovered classical conditioning by accident because of dogs salivating when cages rattled?
A stimulus that automatically elicits a response without any prior conditioning or learning; a reflex
The response that occurs automatically to the UCS. It is an unlearned reaction/response to an UCS without previous conditioning.
Is a previously neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the UCS, also eventually elicits a response
The response that occurs to the CS. It is a learned/conditioned reaction/response to the CS.
Chart of classical conditioning
CS --> UCS ----> UCR
Process whereby other stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus also elicits a conditioned response
What is the significance of Watson and Rayner's research with Little Albert?
Showed that fear is because of classical conditioning. One of the very 1st experimental demonstrations of how a human emotional response could be acquired.
A behavior therapy procedure geared to dealing with phobias and anxiety; very successful - around 70-90%; relatively brief; can be done in real life or in a lab
Does classical conditioning or operant conditioning have more applications?
What is operant conditioning?
A form of learning in which responses or behaviors come to be controlled by their consequences; focus is on consequent events; voluntary behaviors
What is positive reinforcement?
Add something after a behavior which increases the frequency of that behavior
Shaping Through Successive Approximations
Teaching a behavior like bar pressing through small steps
Remove something after a particular behavior which increases that behavior
Add a stimulus/event after a behavior which causes that behavior to decrease
A stimulus/event is removed after a behavior which decreases the frequency of that behavior
Reinforcement no longer follows a behavior and the effect is for a short increase in behavior and then it decreases and dies out
it gets worse before it gets better
What is Skinner Box also known as?
What are the 5 types of reinforcers?
material/tangible, social, token, activity, premack's principle (Grandma's Rule)
What is premack's principle/grandma's rule?
Using preferred activities as reinforce less preferred activities. "Want some dessert? Then eat your peas first."
What are the reasons for misbehaving?
To get friends or teacher's attention, to get something taken away, to get out of something
What are some possibilities of the reasons that operant conditioning isn't working?
Punishment may be used as the main way of trying to manage a behavior, inconsistency in a single individual or between individuals, techniques have not been tried long enough, consequences may not be important enough, there may be an extinction burst
What is the best approach for training?
Use positive procedures with occasional, mild punishment
Schedules of reinforcement
determine which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer; how often should you reinforce the behavior?
the number of times a behavior occurs
period of time - how much time has elapsed between when a behavior occurs
reinforcer is given after a fixed number of responses
reinforcer is given after a variable number or average number of responses
reinforcer is given for the first particular response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed
Reinforcer is given for the first particular response after a variable amount of time has elapsed
What happens to behavior when it's maintained on a fixed interval schedule; stair step; alternating between nothing and the behavior
If then statement
Dependent Group Contingency
The group's access to reinforcement is based on a single or few other students
Interdependent Group Contingency
The group's access to reinforcement is based on group criteria for the behavior; everyone contributes; most flexible
Independent Group Contingency
Each individual's access to reinforcement is based on his or her own behavior
Interdependent Group Contingency Example: Naughty Finger Study
Done in a special education classroom where there was a problem with kids giving each other the finger; researchers set up 2 teams with 3 rules - no giving the finger, no talking about it, and no tattling on it; marks against the team for breaking rules; team with the fewest points win
Interdependent Group Contingency Example: Good Behavior Game
Teacher splits class into 2-3 teams; use the game to help with problematic rules; team with the fewest marks win; or set it up so that if both teams have under a certain number of marks they both win; can be used for high school too
This set is often in folders with...
PSy 232 text #1: Research method
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