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Biology Genetics 9th grade
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
Sequence of DNA that codes for protein and thus determines a trait.
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell's nucleus divides.
animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes
Male reproductive organ.
Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
development of spermatozoa
development of ova
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
Term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes.
Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosmes and therfore only a single set of genes.
Scientific study of heredity.
Father of Genetics
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Male part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament.
the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
when sperm cells in pollen fertilize the egg cells in the same flower; seeds that are produced inherit all of their characteristics from the single plant that bore them
pollen from one flower transfered to the sticky stigma of another flower
Principle of dominant and recessiveness
States some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
The trait that is most likely to appear in the next generation
The trait that is less likely to appear in the next generation
A mixed gene (Gg)
100% same (GG)
Law of segragation
states that the two alleles for a character segragate when gametes are formed
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Traits that differ from eachother, or do not favor each other.
Law of independant assortment
the law that states that genes seperate independantly of one another in meiosis
different forms of a gene
hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
Traits that are not fully dominant, nor fully recessive