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Substance Use

ingestion of psychoactive substance in moderate amounts

Substance abuse

defined in terms of how significantly it interferes with the users life


requires greater amounts of drug for same affect


negative physical response when substance is no longer ingested

Agonist Substitution

providing person with a safe drug that has a similar makeup to addictive drug; methadane

Antagonist treatments

blocks or counteracts the effects of drug; naltrexone

Aversive treatment(medication)

medication that makes ingesting abused drug extremely unpleasant; disulfram(antabuse) for alcohol

Aversion Therapy (psychological treatment)

substance use paired with something extremely unpleasant

Personality Disorder

enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to , and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts

Cluster A

odd or eccentric cluster
paranoid, schizoid, schizoidtypal disorders

Cluster B

dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic

Cluster C

anxious or fearful cluster
avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive


involuntary motor movements; head twitching, vocalizations; grunts that occur in rapid succession, come on suddenly, and happen in stereotyped ways


disturbance in speech fluency that includes repeating syllables or words, or prolonging certain sounds.

3 categories of symptoms of ADHD

problems of inattention

Problems of inattention

don't appear to listen
don't pay attention to details
make careless mistakes


trouble sitting still


blurting out answers
excessive talking
having trouble waiting turn or delaying reinforcement

Autistic Disorders:
Impairment in Social Interactions

do not develop the types of social relationships expected for their age

Autistic Disorders:
Significant Impairment in Communication

nearly always have severe problems communicating

Autistic Disorders:
Restricted Patterns of Behavior

maintenance of sameness; stereotyped behaviors; narrowed focus

Asperger's Disorder

impaired social relationships
restricted or unusual behaviors
can often be quite verbal and have normal IQ's
more interest in facts/objects than people
often clumsy and poor coordination


cognitive disorder that results in a gradual deterioration of brain functioning that affects judgment, memory, and cognitive functioning.

Neurofibrilary Tangles

Tangled, strand-like fiilaments
Alzheimer's patients

Amyloid Plaques

degeneration that results from gummy protein deposits that accumulate in the brain


disturbance of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention
Change in cognition that is not accounted for by dementia

Causes of delerium

infections, sleep deprivation, excessive stress, immobility

Paranoid PD

defining characteristic is a pervasive unjustified mistrust and suspiciousness of others

Schizoid PD

show a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations

Schizotypal PD

socially isolated and express little emotion, but also experience perceptual distortions and behave in an eccentric manner, "odd" or "bizarre"

Antisocial PD

characterized by a history of failing to comply with social norms; indifferent to the concerns of others

Borderline PD

pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, emotion, and marked impulsivity

Histrionic PD

excessive emotionality and attention seeking

Narcissistic PD

pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration and lack of empathy

Avoidant PD

social inhibition because of feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation or fear of rejection

Dependent PD

pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation

Obsessive-Compulsive PD

pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency

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