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Having above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something.

learning disability

Describes a child who has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, and spelling.


A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD, A condition mainly in children demonstrated by hyperactivity, and inability to concentrate, and impulsive behavior.

Attention Deficit Disorder

ADD, A condition characterized by difficulty in concentrating and following through on a task; does not include hyperactivity.

mental retardation

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.


A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.

autism spectrum disorder

ASD, A disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior.


Educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

federal law enacted in 1990 & reauthorized in 1997, designed to protect the rights of students with disabilities by ensuring that everyone recieves a free appropriate public education regardless of ability. Strives to grant equal access to students with disabilities & to provide additonal special education services & procedural safegaurds

invisible disabilities

refers to conditions that have no outward signs that alert casual observers to an individual's condition

Down's Syndrome

A genetic disorder that causes developmental delays and is caused by problems with chromosome 21.

fetal alcohol syndrome

A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy

Tourette's Syndrome

Disorder that includes multiple motor and one or more vocal tics, which occur many times per day.

Asberger's Syndrome

high functioning autism, impaired social interest and skills, restricted interests, high intelligence, language is not delayed or deficient

Individualized Education Plan

written plan developed by an interdisciplinary educational team identifying services and supports for children ages 3-21.

Individualized Family Service Plan

A plan to meet the overall special needs of a child, including assessment, goals for development, and ways to promote family support and involvement


process of sending or guiding someone to another source for assistance

hearing impairment

The inability to detect or perceive at least some frequencies of sound which should normally be heard

articulation problem

Omissions, distortions or substitutions of vowels or constants or both.

visual impairment

Difficulties in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness

chronic health needs

Needs for special care caused by an illness that persists over a period of time.


A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.


A hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding

behavior disorder

refers to any visible activities done by a child that are inappropriate in nature


gifted child is assigned to a class with older children


Educational approach that provides a child with extra learning experiences that the standard curriculum would not normally include.

Cognitive disabilities

describes a child whose intellectual functioning is significantly below developmental milestones for his/her age

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