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physio psych quiz 1
Terms in this set (78)
father of modern psychology
what did descartes assume that the world was?
a purely mechanical entity that, once being set in motion by God, ran its course without divine interference
what did Descartes call reactions that did not require the participation of the mind?
what did descartes find the link between and where does it take place?
interaction between the mind and body; takes place in pineal body
relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do
what did muller observe?
that although all nerves carry the same basic message, an electrical impulse, we perceive the messages of different nerves in different ways
ex: messages carried by the optic nerves produce sensations of visual images and those carried by auditory nerves produce sensations of sounds
What did Flourens do?
removed various parts of animal's brains and observed their behavior; was able to see what the animal could no longer do and infer the function of the missing portion of the brain (experimental ablation)
What did Paul Broca do?
applied the principle of experimental ablation to the human brain by observing the behavior of people whose brains had been damaged by strokes (loosing ability to speak)-front part of the left side of brain
What did Helmholtz do?
attempted to measure the speed of conduction through nerves; devised mathematical formulation of the law of conservation of energy
what did Darwin do?
formulated the principles of natural selection and evolution which revolutionized biology
ethical issues in research with animals
must be humane and worthwhile; no excuse for mistreating animals in our care
what has research with laboratory animals produced?
important discoveries about the possible causes/treatments of neurological and mental disorders including Parkinson's, schizophrenia, manic depressive illness, anxiety, etc.
what do behavioral neuroscientists study?
all behavioral phenomena that can be observed in nonhuman animals; attempt to understand the role of the nervous system and the interaction with the rest of the body in controlling behavior
ex: sleep, emotional behavior, aggressive behavior, learning, memory, phobias, depression, anxiety
what is the soma?
the cell body of a neuron; contains the nucleus
what are the dendrites?
attached to the soma; receive information from the terminal buttons of other neurons
what is the axon?
conveys the information from the soma of a neuron to its terminal buttons; message it carries is called an action potential
what are the terminal buttons?
bud at the end of a branched axon; forms synapses with another neuron to send information
What is a neurotransmitter?
chemical released by the terminal button; has an inhibitory or excitatory effect
what is a synapse?
junction between the terminal button of an axon and the membrane of another neuron
what is a bipolar neuron?
one axon and one dendrite; primarily found in the sensory system
what is a unipolar neuron?
a neuron with one axon attached to its soma; axon divides, one branch receiving sensory information the other sending the information to the CNS; primarily found in somatosensory system
what is a membrane?
structure consisting of lipids molecules that defines the outer boundaries of a cell; embedded are proteins
viscous, semiliquid substance contained in the inferior of a cell
responsible for extracting energy from nutrients; inherit from mothers
importance to cellular energy metabolism; breakdown liberates energy; produced by mitochondria
contains genetic material
strand of DNA found in the nucleus; carries genetic information
macromolecule consisting of two interconnected helical structures
functional unit of the chromosome that directs the synthesis of one or more proteins
gives the cell its shape
cause molecules to split apart or join together
active process by which substances are propelled along microtubules that run the length of the axon
a long strand of bundles of protein filaments arranged around a hollow core; part of the cytoskeleton and involved in transporting substances from place to place within the cell
detects changes in the external or internal environment and sends information about these changes to the CNS
a neuron within the CNS that controls the contraction of a muscle or secretion of a gland
located entirely within the CNS
CNS consists of
brain and spinal cord
PNS consists of
cranial and spinal nerves
neurons must constantly be supplied with
nutrients and oxygen
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Act as phagocytes, protecting the brain from invading microorganisms
Type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths
surrounds axons and insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons
node of ranvier
a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells
a cell in the PERIPHERAL nervous system that is wrapped around a myelinated axon, providing one segment of its myelin sheath
a semipermeable barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries
a region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak; poisons can be detected there and can initiate vomiting
a conductive medium that can beg used to apply electrical stimulation or to record electrical potentials
used to record activity of individual neurons
the electrical charge across a cell membrane; the difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell
a lab instrument that is capable of displaying a graph of voltage as a function of time on the face of a cathode ray tube
membrane potential of a neuron when it is not being altered by excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials; -70mV
reduction (toward zero) of the membrane potential of a cell from its normal resting potential
the brief electrical impulse that provides the basis for conduction of information along an axon
threshold of excitation
the value of the membrane potential that must be reached in order to produce an action potential
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
a charged molecule
force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between atomic particles charged with the same sign
there is a high concentration of what inside a cell
a- and k+
there is a high concentration of what outside the cell
cl- and na+
low concentration of what outside the cell
what cannot leave the inside of a cell
fluid within cells
body fluids located outside of cells
sodium potassium transporters
a protein found in the membrane of all cells that extrudes sodium ions from and transports potassium ions into the cell
permits specific ions to enter or leave cells
1) the opening of NA channels at the threshold of excitation (-55mV)
3) their refractory condition at the peak of the action potential
5) their resetting when the membrane potential turns to normal
all or none law
principle that once an action potential is triggered in an axon, it is propagated to the end of the fiber
the principle that variations in the intensity of a stimulus or other information being transmitted in an axon are represented by variations in the rate at which that axon fires
conduction of potentials by myelinated axons; come into contact with extracellular fluid at node of Ranvier
propagation of action potential
1) resting potential of -70mV
2) chemically gated sodium channels open (na2+), increasing the charge inside the membrane
3) action potential must reach -55mV (threshold-all or nothing)
4) voltage gated sodium channels open, positive sodium ions rush in and depolarize the cell to +40mV
5) repolarization occurs: voltage gated potassium ions open letting potassium ions (k+) flow out and rebalance the charges
6) hyper-polarization: -75mV
7) sodium potassium pumps bring back to -70mV
primary means of communication between neurons
a small bud on the surface of a dendrite, with which a terminal button of another neuron forms a synapse
the location on a receptor protein to which a ligand binds
term for a chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor
the membrane of a terminal button that lies adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane and through which the neurotransmitter is released
the space between the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane
the cell membrane opposite the terminal button in a synapse; the membrane of the cell that receives the message
alterations in the membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron, produced by liberation of neurotransmitter at the synapse
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