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Terms in this set (37)
Guise and Bourbon
The families attempting to throw the Valois Family off of their throne in France.
Catherine de Medici
The queen of France who played both sides in the French Wars of Religion in order to keep her sons on their throne.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The Holiday in France in which 20,000 (or so) Huguenots were murdered in the streets by Catholics.
King of France, Bourbon Family, begins that dynasty after the last Valois king dies in the French Civil War. When he's king, he signs the Edict of Nantes.
Edict of Nantes
1598 document signed by Henri IV that gave Huguenots (no other religions) limited rights of private worship.
A ruler who cares more about his or her country than his or her religion. Examples: Henri IV and Elizabeth I
A leader who cares more about his or her religion (Catholicism) and spreading it than about the welfare or finances of his or her country. Examples: Mary I (Tudor - Bloody Mary) of England and Phillip II of Spain.
"Paris is Worth a Mass"
What Henri IV said when he converted from protestantism to Catholicism to keep peace in France.
Thirty Years War
War in the Holy Roman Empire that began as a religious conflict in Bohemia (Czech Republic today) between Protestants and Catholics that turned into a Europe-wide conflict as other countries kept getting involved. The last phase was purely political as other monarchs, like in France, sought to knock the HRE off of its pedestal. War and famine resulted in 8 million deaths in the HRE.
Peace of Westphalia
1648 - ended the Thirty Years War. Land was divided, Netherlands and Switzerland gained independence, people in the HRE gained limited freedom of religion (Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism are choices). France came out as the winner, HRE came out as the loser in the end.
Defenestration of Prague
(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Charles I and Charles V
King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor in the 1500s
Militant Catholic leader of Spain. Responsible for building a large palace called El Escorial, Fighting the 80 Years War with the Netherlands, a conflict with England where their armada was defeated, more control overseas in the New World, etc. Married to Mary Tudor I of England briefly.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada is defeated in 1588 by Elizabeth I's troops. Much of it is attributed to their smaller and more maneuverable ships (the Spanish Galleons were too hard to turn in the channel). However, it is also attributed to the "Protestant Wind," or the storm that came up and smashed the Spanish ships onto the rocks by Ireland.
Council of Troubles/Council of Blood
The "Inquisition Style" trial set up by the Duke of Alva in the Netherlands in order to prosecute and then execute protestants there for treason and heresy. Called the "Council of Troubles" by the Spanish, called the "Council of Blood" by the Dutch.
Mary Tudor I
Nicknamed Bloody Mary due to her heavy persecution of protestants. She made England Catholic after her father and brother Edward changed the religion to Anglican, and married Philip II of Spain to cement that relationship. Died of health problems and the country went to Elizabeth I.
45 year ruling monarch, beloved in England. "Elizabethan Age" - age of renaissance (Shakespeare), exploration, and power for England. Defeated the Armada. Called the Virgin Queen, never marries.
William the Silent of Orange
was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648.
Mary Stuart "Queen of Scots"
Queen of Scotland who got herself in a bit of trouble when her husband died under suspicious circumstances and she fled to England to escape trial. Since she was Catholic she was placed under house arrest for 19 years, but she was involved in the Babington Plot against Elizabeth so she was executed for treason in 1587.
King of England 1603-1625. His mother was Mary Stuart Queen of Scots so he was able to take the throne after Elizabeth died without children.
Edict of Restitution
Imperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion (Catholic or Lutheran) of each German state (small region) would be decided by its ruler (prince).
(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles. Considered the "Father of Modern Warfare" for his new and amazing battle tactics.
Louis XIII's chief minister, strengthened the monarchy's power, was really in control because Louis XIII was very young. Took away the Huguenots political and military rights, but let them keep religious rights. Set up network of spies to uncover plots by nobles. Also maneuvered France into the Thirty Years War to stop the HRE's power.
French protestants, usually Calvinist.
Members of the Church of England, run by the King or Queen of England with a defined hierarchy like that of the Catholic Church (Bishops, Archbishops, etc.)
Lady Jane Grey
Nicknamed the "Nine Days Queen" she was executed for treason by Mary Tudor I. She was put into power as an alternative to her Catholic Cousin Mary.
Henry VIII's only son, he was a sickly child who only ruled for a short time and died at age 16. His accomplishments are generally attributed to his advisers who instituted the Book of Common Prayer and banned Mass in Latin.
7 people plot to kill Elizabeth so that Mary Queen of Scots can become the new ruler.
Albrecht Von Wallenstein
mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE, he won many important battles against the Protestants. He considered switching sides and really freaked out the nobles in the HRE, so he was eventually assassinated.
Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia and Hungary who waged war against Protestant forces (1578-1637).
Francis II, Charles IX, Henri III
Sons of Catherine de Medici - she was trying to keep them in power, but ultimately they all died either from natural causes or in battle.
First Phase of the 30 Years War
Bohemian Phase: between Catholics and Protestants in modern day Czech Republic. Protestants feared their rights would be taken away from Ferdinand II.
Second Phase of the 30 Years War
Danish Phase: Protestant Denmark joined the fight against Ferdinand II of the Holy Roman Empire and his oppressive policies.
Third Phase of the 30 Years War
Swedish Phase: When Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (Protestant) fought with France's financial backing against Ferdinand II of the HRE. He kicked some tail initially before dying in battle.
Fourth Phase of the 30 Years War
French Phase: The French fought primarily, with some financial assistance from Sweden. They finally won and defeated the Hapsburgs - this was due to Cardinal Richelieu wanting to take the HRE down a peg.
William of Orange (The Silent)
Leader of the Dutch Revolt against Philip's Spain. Went from Catholic, to Lutheran, before becoming a Calvinist. United both Catholics and Protestants against Catholic Philip. (Politique)
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