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nutrition

spring semester
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you are admitting a patient with anorexia what measures will you take regarding food
assign privileges based on weight gain
what food item is appropriate to consume for a patient who has celiac disease
potatoes (gluten free)
(food items that are not gluten free: bread, pudding, brand muffin, graham cracker),
For this disease, eliminate gluten from diet, give vitamin (ADEK - fat soluble) supplements. Can have rice & corn.
It is a chronic, inherited, genetic disorder with autoimmune characteristics. Clients who have celiac
disease are unable to digest the protein gluten. They lack the digestive enzyme DPP-IV, which is
required to break down the gluten into molecules small enough to be used by the body. In celiac
disease, gluten is broken down into peptide strands instead molecules. The body is not able to
metabolize the peptides. If untreated, the client will suffer destruction of the villa and the walls of
the small intestine. Celiac disease may go undiagnosed in both children and adults.
a patient with diabetes 1 mellitus assess somogyi phenomenon
monitor blood glucose levels during the night
when performing enteral tube feeding you must
increase volume of formula over first 4-6 feedings ,
a method of feeding by providing a liquid diet directly to the stomach or intestine through a tube placed down the throat or through the wall of the GI tract
what is a normal lab value for a person with type 2 diabetes
HbA1c of 6.5%
abnormal: serum creatine 1.5 mg/dL
BUN of 25 mg/dL
pre-meal blood glucose of 145 mg/dL
If you had a fasting blood glucose test:
•A level of 100-125mg/dL means you have impaired fasting glucose, a type of prediabetes. This increases your risk for type 2 diabetes.
•A level of 126 mg/dL and higher most often means you have diabetes
gastric bypass surgery
start each meal with protein ,
: surgically makes the stomach smaller and causes food to bypass the first part of the small intestine. this procedure is not reversible
somogyi phenomenon
is fasting hyperglycemia that occurs in morning in response to hypoglycemia during the night time. the nurse assesses for this phenomenon by monitoring blood glucose levels during the night.
Usually occurs during the night, but manifests as an elevated glucose in the morning and may be inadvertently treated with an increase in insulin dosage. Check blood glucose around 3:00 a.m. Adjusting insulin to avoid peaking during the night will correct this effect.
enteral feeding must report:
report sodium 128 mEq/L. this finding is the priority to report to provider.
normal range for blood sodium levels is 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter ...
hyponatremia occurs when hyperosmolar enteral feedings are being administered too rapidly and places client at risk for dehydration. it is important that formula be prepared as directed. diluting formula can decrease its nutritional content and cause inadequate weight gain.
Nutrients supplied to the gastrointestinal tract orally or by feeding tube.
engaging in what activity will burn more calories
125 lb person; playing soccer `
diverticulitis
limit fiber intake when experiencing manifestations.
Infected or inflamed pouch (diverticulum) in the colon. Common in older persons; Low-fiber diet and constipation are risk factors.
type I diabetes (how to count carbs)
"I know the serving size can affect the number of carbs I can eat
:A chronic metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels associated with the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin; also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes.
total parenteral nutrition ( no bag available what should nurse do?)
:administer dextrose 10% in water

TPN provides a nutritionally complete solution. It can be used when caloric needs are very high,
when the anticipated duration of therapy is greater than 7 days, or when the solution to be
administered is hypertonic (composed of greater than 10% dextrose). It can only be administered
in a central vein.
TPN is commonly used in clients undergoing treatment for cancer, bowel disorders, and
those suffering from trauma or extensive burns, as these conditions are associated with high
caloric requirements.
Monitor for "cracking" of TPN solution. This occurs if the calcium or phosphorous content is
high or if poor-salt albumin is added. A "cracked" TPN solution has an oily appearance or a
layer of fat on top of the solution and should not be used.
iron deficiency anemia (prescribed oral supplement which fluid should nurse administer along?
:orange juice

■■ Manifestations
☐☐ Fatigue
☐☐ Lethargy
☐☐ Pallor of nail beds
☐☐ Intolerance to cold
■■ Children with low iron intake can experience short attention spans and display poor
intellectual performance before anemia begins.

Iron deficiency anemia can result from poor intestinal absorption, blood loss, and
inadequate consumption.
■■ Sources of iron
☐☐ Meat
☐☐ Fish
☐☐ Poultry
☐☐ Tofu
☐☐ Dried peas and beans
☐☐ Whole grains
☐☐ Dried fruit
■■ Iron-fortified foods
☐☐ Infant formula (acceptable alternative or supplement to breastfeeding)
☐☐ Infant cereal (usually the first food introduced to infants)
☐☐ Ready-to-eat cereals
■■ Vitamin C facilitates the absorption of iron (promote consumption).
■■ Caution: Medicinal iron overdose is the leading cause of accidental poisoning in small children
and can lead to acute iron toxicity.
important when helping impaired vision clients
serve client one food at a time
kosher dietary laws
pressure ulcer: kosher dietary laws: food appropriate: macaroni and cheese
requires strict separation of dairy and meat containing foods, careful slaughtering and inspection of all meats, no pork, no shellfish, no mixture of meat and dairy
helping a client with nutrition who has hypernatremia
items low in sodium: orange wedge, tomatoe-Brown rice
tip to give a pregnant women to help with nausea
"I will eat dry cereal before I get out of bed"For nausea, eat dry crackers or toast. Avoid alcohol, caffeine, fats, and spices. Avoid drinking fluids
with meals, and do not take medications to control nausea without checking with the provider.
client chemotherapy adequate nutrition
" I have maintained my weight since start treatmetns
expected acute pancreatitis labs
increase serum glucose due to decrease insulin production by pancreas
Nutritional therapy for acute pancreatitis involves reducing pancreatic stimulation. The client is
prescribed nothing by mouth (NPO), and a nasogastric tube is inserted to suction gastric contents.
what should the nurse recommend to a client who has a Ca prescription in order to increase calcium absorption
take supplements that contain vitamin D to improve calcium absorption
list things that a nurse must do in order to prevent dysphagia when giving oral feeding
* gently palpate clients throat during swallowing
* inspect for food pockets in mouth before feeding
* allow client to rest 30 min before meals
what are some appropriate snacks for a toddler
pieces of avocado
what should be the expected weight gain for a pregnant women who has a BMI of 29
15-25 lb
Recommended weight gain during the first trimester is 1 to 4 lb.
◯◯ Recommended weight gain is 2 to 4 lb per month during the second and third trimesters.
◯◯ Trimesters two and three:
■■ Normal weight client - 1 lb/week for a total of 25 to 35 lb.
■■ Underweight client - just more than 1 lb/week for a total of 28 to 40 lb.
■■ Overweight client - 0.66 lb/week for a total of 15 to 25 lb.
when performing enteral tube feeding what nursing intervention must be performed in order to prevent aspiration
monitor gastric residual every 4hr
Monitor clients receiving enteral tube feedings and report clinical manifestations of dumping
syndrome to the provider.
View Video: Enteral Tube Feeding
◯◯ Verify the presence of bowel sounds.
◯◯ To maintain feeding tube patency, it is flushed routinely with warm water.
■■ Gastric residuals should be checked every 4 to 6 hr. If the residual volume exceeds the amount
of formula given in the previous 2 hr, it may be necessary to consider reducing the rate of the
feeding. Residuals should be returned to the stomach as they contain electrolytes, nutrients,
and digestive enzymes. Follow facility policy.
☐☐ For an infant - Subtract the amount of the residual from the amount of the formula to be
given. Return the residual to the stomach plus the reduced amount of formula or breast milk.
☐☐ For children - If the residual is more than one fourth of the previous feeding, return the
residual to the stomach and recheck in 30 to 60 min.
☐☐ Notify the provider if a large amount of residual continues to occur.
◯◯ The head of the bed should be elevated at least 30º during feedings and for at least 30 to 60 min
afterward to lessen the risk of aspiration.
◯◯ Bubble the infant following the feeding if the infant's condition allows.
◯◯ Begin with a small volume of full-strength formula. Increase volume in intervals as tolerated until
the desired volume is achieved.
◯◯ Administer the feeding solution at room temperature to decrease gastrointestinal discomfort.
◯◯ Do not heat formulas in a microwave as this can result in uneven temperatures within the solution.
what are some things to do in order to help a toddler with risk for failure to thrive (behavioral management)
*eliminate environment disruptions during feeding
remain seated in front of toddler for entire feeding
plan each feeding at same time each day
assessing client with end-stage kidney disease, what would be an indication for increase risk of dysrhythmias
a diet rich in potassium
Facts about Potassium (K)
Major Actions ››Maintains fluid volume inside/outside cells, muscle action, blood pressure,
cardiovascular support
Major Sources ›› Oranges, dried fruits, tomatoes, avocados, dried peas, meats, broccoli, bananas
Findings of Deficiency ›› Dysrhythmias, muscle cramps, confusion
Findings of Excess ›› Dysrhythmias (caused by supplements, potassium-sparing diuretics,
ACE inhibitors, inadequate kidney function, diabetes)
Nursing Implications ››Monitor ECG and muscle tone. PO tabs irritate the GI system. Give with meals.
end stage kidney disease
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) or CKD manifestations include fatigue, decreased alertness, anemia,
decreased urination, headache, and weight loss.
ESKD or CKD occurs when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 29 mL/min, the serum
creatinine level steadily rises, or dialysis or transplantation is necessary.
◯◯ Therapeutic Nutrition
■■ The goal of nutritional therapy is to maintain appropriate fluid status, blood pressure, and
blood chemistries.
☐☐ A high-protein, low-phosphorus, low-potassium, low-sodium (2 to 4 g/day), fluid-restricted
diet is recommended.
☐☐ Once dialysis begins, protein intake will be increased because some protein is lost during
dialysis. The amount of protein increase will depend on whether hemodialysis or peritoneal
dialysis is being performed.
☐☐ Vitamin D and calcium are nutrients of concern.
■■ Potassium intake is dependent upon the client's laboratory findings, which should be
closely monitored.
■■ Sodium and fluid allowances are determined by blood pressure, weight, serum electrolyte
findings, and urine output.
■■ Achieving a well-balanced diet based on the above guidelines is difficult. The National Renal Diet
provides clients with a list of appropriate food choices.
■■ Protein needs increase once dialysis has begun as protein and amino acids are lost in the dialysate.
☐☐ Fifty percent of protein intake should come from biologic sources (eggs, milk, meat, fish,
poultry, soy).
☐☐ Adequate calories (35 kcal/kg of body weight) should be consumed to maintain body
protein stores.
■■ Phosphorus must be restricted.
☐☐ A high protein requirement leads to an increase in phosphorus intake.
☐☐ Foods high in phosphorus are milk products, beef liver, chocolate, nuts, and legumes.
☐☐ Phosphate binders (e.g., calcium carbonate, calcium acetate) must be taken with all meals
and snacks.
■■ Vitamin D deficiency occurs as the kidneys are unable to convert vitamin D to its active form.
☐☐ This alters the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, leading to
hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hypermagnesemia.
☐☐ Calcium supplements will likely be required because foods high in phosphorus (which are
restricted) are also high in calcium.
nurse is caring for a client with age related macular degeneration are there any recommendations for nutritional changes to consider?
increase dietary intake of lutein
age related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a deterioration or breakdown of the eye's macula. The macula is a small area in the retina — the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. The macula is the part of the retina that is responsible for your central vision, allowing you to see fine details clearly

Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments that may play a role in reducing the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration. Evidence is accumulating on the consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin (in whole food or supplemental form), the resulting concentrations in the serum, and tissue distribution throughout the body, particularly in the retina. Lutein and zeaxanthin intake increases serum concentrations which in turn increases macular pigment density
the nurse is teaching a client about low-residue diet. which food choice indicates understanding of teaching
two-egg cheese omelet and banana
a low residue diet limits the amount of stool traveling through intestine tract
A low-residue diet is a diet in which fiber and other foods that are harder for your body to digest are restricted. Fiber is made up of plant material that cannot be completely digested by the body. High-fiber foods include whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, seeds, and raw or dried fruits.

Residue refers to undigested foods, including fiber, that make up stool. If intestinal walls are inflamed or damaged, digestion and absorption of nutrients and water may be impaired, depending on the location of disease activity
what response from mom who wants to bottle feed formula indicates a need for further teaching
"I will add more water to formula if baby has diarrhea"
during a class for woman of child bearing age, what food source should be recommended to take in order to have adequate folate
3.5 oz chicken liver
what should you do if a client does not like the taste of a nutritional supplement?
offer a nutritionally comparable supplement
offer it chilled to improve taste
what would be the first action to take on an obese client who wants to lose weight
obtain 24 hr dietary recall
?providing post op instructions about proteins to client who had a below the knee amputation, additional instructions
pinto beans (are a plant protein)
therefore incomplete food protein
nurse is reviewing protein status of a malnourished person what lab values should be reviewed
albumin (reflect over all body protein status and are used to detect kidney and liver functioning
teaching about food interactions to client taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) what response indicates effective teaching:
"I will stop eating cheddar cheese" bc it contains tyramine and should be avoided while taking MAOI
monoamine oxidase inhibitor
A group of anti-depressant drugs that inhibit the enzyme Monoamine Oxidase in the brain and raise the levels of neurotransmitters such as--Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Serotonin.,

A type of antidepressant medication that requires strict adherence to a diet free of tyramine,

Antidepressant, side effects dry mouth, seizures, hypertensive crisis, insomnia, drowsiness
educating about importance of including fiber in diet will help prevent
hyperlipidemia
hyperlipidemia
alcohol is not recommened for a person that has hyperlipidemia
Hydrogenated oils for cooking should be avoided because they contain trans fatty
acids and cause hyperlipidemia.
nurse is teaching about healthy diet to control hypertension, client understands by saying
I will eat 4 servings of unsalted nuts per week
client has alcohol use disorder and is exhibiting clinical finidings of beriberi ( thiamin deficiency), you must teach what for diet
increase whole wheat bread

Thiamin (B1) is necessary for proper digestion, peristalsis, and providing energy to the smooth
muscles, glands, the CNS, and blood vessels.
☐☐ Deficiency results in beriberi, gastrointestinal findings, and cardiovascular problems.
☐☐ Food sources are widespread in almost all plant and animal tissues, especially meats, grains,
and legumes.
enteral feeding
is used when a client cannot consume adequate nutrients and calories orally,
but maintains a partially functional gastrointestinal system.
●● EN is administered when a client has a medical condition (burns, trauma, radiation therapy or
chemotherapy, liver or renal dysfunction, infection and inflammatory bowel disease) that hinders the
client's nutritional status.
gavage feeding
for an infant is used when an infant is too weak for sucking, unable to
coordinate swallowing, and lacks a gag reflex.
●● Gavage feeding is implemented to conserve energy when an infant is attempting to breast feed or
bottle feed, but becomes fatigued, weak, or cyanotic.
breastfeeding newborn, ask how many kcal should eat when breast feeding
increase calories by 300-400 a day
breastfeeding facts
Iron-fortified foods
☐☐ Infant formula (acceptable alternative or supplement to breastfeeding)

If the client is breastfeeding during the
postpartum period, an additional daily intake of 330 calories is recommended during the first 6 months,
and an additional daily intake of 400 calories is recommended during the second 6 months.
Breast milk, infant formula, or a combination of the two is the sole source of nutrition for the first
4 to 6 months of life. Currently, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends exclusive
breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, followed by breastfeeding with the introduction of
complementary foods until at least 12 months of age, then continuation of breastfeeding for as long
as the mother and infant desire.

The newborn is offered the breast immediately after birth and frequently thereafter. There
should be eight to 12 feedings in a 24-hr period.
The newborn should nurse up to 15 to 20 min per breast. However, avoid educating clients
regarding an expected duration of feedings. Clients should be educated on how to evaluate
when the newborn has completed the feeding by noting the slowing of newborn suckling, a
softened breast, or sleeping.
teach school age kid who was newly diagnosed with celiac disease, parents should increase
simple carbohydrates,
must avoid high fiber food
celiac disease
It is a chronic, inherited, genetic disorder with autoimmune characteristics. Clients who have celiac
disease are unable to digest the protein gluten. They lack the digestive enzyme DPP-IV, which is
required to break down the gluten into molecules small enough to be used by the body. In celiac
disease, gluten is broken down into peptide strands instead molecules. The body is not able to
metabolize the peptides. If untreated, the client will suffer destruction of the villa and the walls of
the small intestine. Celiac disease may go undiagnosed in both children and adults.
◯◯ Clinical manifestations vary widely. Children who have celiac disease have diarrhea, steatorrhea,
anemia, abdominal distention, impaired growth, lack of appetite, and fatigue. Typical manifestations
in adults include diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, anemia, steatorrhea, and osteomalacia.
nurse is caring for a client receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) lab indicate effective
prealbumin 30 mg/dL
bellow ( not good): calcium 8 mg/dl hemoglobin 9 g/dL
cholesterol 140 mg/dL
normal:
prealbumin 20-40 mg/dL
calcium 8.5-10.5
hemoglobin 14-18
cholesterol less than 200
cleft lip and palate. which position to bottle feed
upright
clear liquid diet, restrict which food
sherbet
caring for a client receiving total parenteral nutrition, indication of complication
hypocalcemia
suspect to have lactose intolerance
flatulence
nutritional needs for client with new colostomy (risk for delayed healing)
any kind of meat tastes like cardboard
lactose intolerance
Client Education
●● Lactose intolerance is due to an inadequate level of lactase. The enzyme that converts lactose
into glucose and galactose is absent or insufficient.
●● Clinical Manifestations
◯◯ Abdominal distension
◯◯ Cramps
◯◯ Flatus
◯◯ Diarrhea
●● Foods to limit or avoid: milk, cheese, ice cream, cream soups, puddings, chocolate.

Nuts and beans are significant sources of protein. These are good alternatives for a dairy allergy or
lactose intolerance.

Either soy-based (ProSobee or Isomil) or casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen or Pregestimil) formulas
can be prescribed as alternative formulas for infants who are lactose intolerant.
colostomy
An ostomy is a surgically created opening on the surface of the abdomen from either the end of
the small intestine (ileostomy) or from the colon (colostomy).
◯◯ Fluid and electrolyte maintenance is the primary concern for clients who have ileostomies
and colostomies.
◯◯ The colon absorbs large amounts of fluid, sodium, and potassium.
◯◯ Nutrition therapy begins with liquids only and is slowly advanced based upon client tolerance.
◯◯ Nursing Interventions
■■ Advise the client to consume a diet that is high in fluids and soluble fiber.
■■ Encourage the client to avoid foods that cause gas (beans, eggs, carbonated beverages), stomal
blockage (nuts, raw carrots, popcorn), and foods that produce odor (eggs, fish, garlic).
■■ Encourage the client to increase his intake of calories and protein to promote healing of the
stoma site.
■■ Provide emotional support to clients due to their altered body image.
nurse is discussing prenatal education, mom plans to breast feed best time is
breastfeeding immediately following birth. within 1hr . of delivery to promote successful breastfeeding
teaching about healthy eating; your total fat intake should be
between 20-35% of calories per day
cholesterol should be 200-300 a day
administer influenza vaccine to adult food allergies to vaccine:
eggs
dietary teaching to client who has chronic skin ulcers of lower extremities. which food is recommended to client to increase zinc
4 oz ground beef patty
coronary artery disease. foods to increase that have omega-3 fatty acid
grilled salmon
Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, flaxseed, soy beans, canola, and walnuts
reduces the risk of coronary artery disease.
coronary heart disease
Preventative Nutrition
■■ Consuming a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet can reduce the risk of developing CHD. The
Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diet is designed to be a user-friendly eating guide to
encourage dietary changes.
■■ Daily cholesterol intake should be less than 200 mg.
■■ Conservative use of red wine may reduce the risk of developing CHD.
■■ Increasing fiber and carbohydrate intake, avoiding saturated fat, and decreasing red meat
consumption can decrease the risk for developing CHD.
■■ Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, flaxseed, soy beans, canola, and walnuts
reduces the risk of coronary artery disease.
■■ Homocysteine is an amino acid. Elevated homocysteine levels can increase the risk of
developing CHD. Deficiencies in folate and vitamins B6 and B12 increase homocysteine levels.
◯◯ Therapeutic Nutrition
■■ Secondary prevention efforts for CHD are focused on lifestyle changes that lower LDL. These
include a diet low in cholesterol and saturated fats, a diet high in fiber, exercise and weight
management, and smoking cessation.
■■ Daily cholesterol intake should be less than 200 mg/day. Saturated fat should be limited to less
than 7% of daily caloric intake.
■■ To lower cholesterol and saturated fats, instruct the client to:
☐☐ Trim visible fat from meats.
☐☐ Limit red meats and choose lean meats (turkey, chicken).
☐☐ Remove the skin from meats.
☐☐ Broil, bake, grill, or steam foods. Avoid frying foods.
☐☐ Use low-fat or nonfat milk, cheese, and yogurt.
☐☐ Use spices in place of butter or salt to season foods.
☐☐ Avoid trans fat as it increases LDL. Partially hydrogenated products contain trans fat.
☐☐ Read labels.
■■ Encourage the client to consume a high-fiber diet. Soluble fiber lowers LDL.
☐☐ Oats, beans, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, barley, and flaxseed are good sources of fiber.
■■ Encourage the client to exercise.
☐☐ Instruct the client regarding practical methods for increasing physical activity. (Encourage
the client to take the stairs rather than the elevator.)
☐☐ Provide the client with references for local exercise facilities.
■■ Instruct the client to stop all use of tobacco products.
■■ The recommended lifestyle changes represent a significant change for many clients.
☐☐ Provide support to the client and family.
☐☐ Encourage the client's family to participate in the changes to ease the transition for the client.
CHAPTER 12 Cardiovascular and Hematologic Disorders
110 Nutrition for Nursing
☐☐ Explain why the diet is important.
☐☐ Aid the client in developing a diet that is complementary to personal food preferences and
lifestyle. A food diary may be helpful.
☐☐ Instruct the client that occasional deviations from the diet are reasonable.
teaching breastfeed in postpartum
thawed breast milk should be used within 24hr
* a client should discard unused breast milk
teaching about osteoporosis: what ages does bone loss begin?
35 (30-35 peak bone is attained)
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis has many modifiable risk factors (calcium and vitamin D intake, inactive lifestyle,
cigarette smoking, alcohol intake). Altering these risk factors can affect nutritional status in a
positive manner.

risk factors for osteoporosis: family history, smoking, inactivity
not risk factors: obesity, and hyperlipidemia
Weight-bearing physical activity is essential to decrease the risk of osteoporosis.

Inadequate calcium intake may predispose the adolescent to osteoporosis later in life.
◯◯ During adolescence, 45% of bone mass is added.
◯◯ Normal blood-calcium levels are maintained by drawing calcium from the bones if calcium intake
is low.
◯◯ Adolescents require at least 1,300 mg of calcium a day, which may be achieved by three to four
servings from the dairy food group.

Aging adults are at an increased risk for developing osteoporosis (decreasing total bone mass and
deterioration of bone tissue). Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake with regular weight-bearing
exercise is important for maximizing bone density.
nurse plans in-service to group of women in the community. osteoporosis is most common in
Caucasian (woman)
teach clients who has chronic kidney disease about limiting calcium intake. which food choice has high calcium?
1 cup of low-fat yogurt
chronic kidney disease
Pre-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) is distinguished by an increase in serum creatinine.
Manifestations include fatigue, back pain, and appetite changes.

A nurse is planning care for a client who has chronic kidney disease. Which of the following should the
nurse include in the plan of care?
A. Monitor daily weights.
B. Encourage compliance with fluid restrictions.
C. Evaluate intake and output.
D. Instruct on restricting calories from carbohydrates.
E. Monitor for constipation.

A. CORRECT: Monitoring daily weight assists in determining fluid retention.
B. CORRECT: Implementing fluid restrictions helps to slow fluid retention.
C. CORRECT: Evaluating I&O helps to determine if there is an increase in fluid retention.
D. INCORRECT: Protein is restricted for a client who has chronic kidney disease.
E. CORRECT: Constipation often occurs as a result of fluid restrictions.
client is undergoing radiation therapy for cancer and is experiencing stomatitis. what food choice is appropriate for the client
scrambled eggs
nutrition management intervention for stomatitis
›› Use a soft toothbrush to clean teeth after eating and at bedtime.
›› Avoid mouth washes that contain alcohol.
››Omit acidic, spicy, dry, or coarse foods.
›› Include cold or room temperature foods in the diet.
›› Cut food into small bites.
›› Try using straws.
›› Be sure dentures fit well.

Dry, coarse foods such as toast can worsen the manifestations of stomatitis.
a female should consume ____servings of unsalted nuts, seeds, or legumes per week for heart healthy diet
4-5 servings
notes
the nurse should administer the iron supplement with orange juice, which contains vitamin C, to enhance absorption

sherbet is part of a full liquid diet not a clear liquid diet