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The Stuart Monarchy: England
Terms in this set (29)
1603-1625, wanted absolute power, faced problems with royal debt, wasn't English, believed in the Divine Right, Pro-Catholic sympathies, clashed with Parliament (raised $ without their consent). Commissioned an English Bible and sent people to America.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
King James Bible
One positive outcome from the meeting between James I and the Puritans at Hampton Court, this english translation of the bible was commissioned by King James
"Divine Right of Kings"
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
Petition of Right
1628. Signed by Charles I. Habeas Corpus (No imprisonment without due cause); no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
Pseudo-taxes passed by James I and Charles I based on duties (like taxes) from the past. It was an attempt to get money without parliament.
Killing of a king
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
those who remained loyal to Charles in the English civil war, tended to be Nobles and High-level clergy.
Supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War, included Puritans, merchants, townspeople, and some members of the upper class.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization. He was known as the "Merry Monarch" because he brought back the monarchy after Oliver Cromwell's reign.
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war. They were promoted based on merit (how good they were) rather than how much money they had or "who they knew."
After the defeat of King Charles I in the English civil war and his execution in 1649, England was governed by him as "Lord Protector." English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
(reigned 1685-1688) a Catholic king who greatly angered Parliament nobles by increasing rights of Catholics. His actions led to the Glorious Revolution in 1688.
Refers to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange. It was "Glorious" or "Bloodless" because very little blood was shed in the revolution.
William and Mary of Orange
King and Queen of England who invaded and forced James I to flee to France. After the invasion Parliament offered them the throne and they accepted. Instated the Bill of Rights which laid the ground for the Constitutional Monarchy. Evened out the power between the monarchs and Parliament, and destroyed the divine-right theory of kingship.
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people. Queen Mary was the daughter (raised protestant) of James II.
Queen of England, sister of Queen Mary and daughter of James II who was raised protestant. She took the throne after King William and Queen Mary died. She presided over the Act of Union in 1707, which united Scotland and the UK, creating "Great Britain."
King George I
King of England after Queen Anne, took a jaunt over to another section of the bloodline to find someone who was Protestant. He was German (line of Hanover) and spoke no English. Thus, one of the ministers became the "Prime Minister" to help him. He was terribly unpopular.
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
Plague and Fire of London
1666 - A plague was killing a large portion of the population until a fire whipped through London, killing the plague and eight people. Charles II rebuilt the city in a more organized fashion, taking the advice of merchants to create a "modern" city.
This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I (the last Tudor); introduced the Divine Right of kings monarchy. Led England into civil war. Eventually ushered in democracy by signing the Bill of Rights.
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
Constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment.
Test Act 1673
Prohibited Catholics from gaining high positions in the English Government.
Guy Fawkes and his band of conspirators attempted to blow up Parliament while James I was inside. They were caught and executed for Treason.
"Years of Personal Rule"
When Charles I reigned alone, not calling parliament for 11 years.
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