70 terms

Psychology Chapter 1

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
any action that other people can observe or measure
cognitive activities
mental processes (private)
psychological construct
used by researchers to learn more about human behavior. used to talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly
observe, describe, predict, control, explain
goals of psychology
sociology, psychology, economics, anthropology, political science, history
social sciences
biology, physics, chemistry
natural sciences
close-ended Questions
multiple choice questions
testing and applying research
a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do (allow prediction)
a rule or law (allow prediction)
clinical psychologist
ps helps people with psychological problems and to change behavior
counseling psychologist
ps treat people with adjustment problems and less serious disorders
school psychologist
ps identify and help students with problems that interfere with learning
educational psychologist
ps help students reach their potential
developmental psychologist
ps study changes that occur throughout a person's life span
personality psychologist
ps identify characteristics or traits (also, gender roles)
social psychologist
ps concerned with people's behavior in social situations
experimental (biological) psychologist
ps conduct research into basic processes such as the functions of the nervous system
basic research
has no immediate application and is done for its own sake (eventually put into practice)
industrial and organizational psychologist
ps focus on people and work
environmental psychologist
ps focus on the ways in which people influence and are influenced by physical environment
consumer psychologist
ps study the behavior of shoppers to explain and predict their behavior
forensic psychologist
ps work within the criminal justice system
health psychologist
ps examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health
ancient greece
first roots of psychology
"Know Thyself"
said by Socrates about examining our thoughts and feelings
"looking within" examining our thoughts and feelings to learn about ourselves; by Plato
Plato's student;outlined associationism
a learned connection between 2 ideas or events, scientific approaches, how experiences often remind us of similar ones in the past
"Peri Psyches"
Aristotle's "About the Mind"
Greek who suggested behavior problems are caused by abnormalities in the brain
Believed behavioral problems were the cause of gods who smite people
The Middle Ages
believed agitation and confusion were possession by demons, punishment for sins, deals with the devil
water float test
if you drowned you were human, if you floated you're a witch and would be burnt at the stake.
Nicolaus Copernicus
suggested Earth orbits the sun
Sir Isaac Newton
formulated laws of gravity and motion
John Locke
intelligence is not inborn but is learned from experience (associationism)
Antoine Lavousier
founded chemistry and explained how animals and plants use oxygen in respiration
Birth of modern psychology
beginning of psychology as a modern lab science
Wilhelm Wundt
formed structuralism
maintains that conscious experiences break down into objective sensations and subjective feelings
objective sensation
the taste of an apple
subjective feeling
thinking about how good a apple tastes
William James
formed functionalism
William James
said experience is a continuous "stream of consciousness"
Principles of Psychology
written to describe relationships between experience and behavior
emphasizes the purpose of behavior and mental processes, how mental processes help organisms adapt to environment
John Watson
formed behaviorism
scientific study of observable behavior (limited to observable, measurable events)
B.F. Skinner
formed reinforcement (people/animals are persuaded into acting certain ways)
Kenneth Clark
African American psychologist who studied prejudice and discrimination
Sigmund Freud
formed the school of psychoanalysis
emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts
psychodynamic thinking
most of what fills an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes
contemporary perspectives
p biological, evolutionary, cognitive, humanistic, psychoanalytic, learning, sociocultural
biological perspective
p emphasizes the influence of biology(hormones, health, chemicals) on our behavior (roots in associationism)
evolutionary perspective
p focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes (hereditary basis, inherited tendancies)
Charles Darwin
british scientist who said in struggle for survival, most adaptive organisms have a greater chance of surviving to maturity, to reproduce
cognitive perspective
p emphasizes the role that thoughts play in determining behavior (roots in "Know Thyself", introspection, structuralism, functionalism, and gestalt psychology)
cognitive perspective
p influenced by computer science, working memories and storage facilities, retrieving data. strategies for solving problems
humanistic perspective
p stresses human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness and the capacity to make choices
humanistic perspective
p believes personal experiences are most important aspect of psychology, free to choose own behavior! (unlike behaviorism) inner experience
psychoanalytic perspective
p stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior, less on unconscious secual aggressive impulses and more on conscious choice and self-direction (unconscious anger and feelings)
learning perspective
p emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
social learning theory
p suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones
sociocultural perspective
p studies the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status on behaviors and mental processes
ethnic group
diversity by cultural heritage, race, language, and common history