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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes


any action that other people can observe or measure

cognitive activities

mental processes (private)

psychological construct

used by researchers to learn more about human behavior. used to talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly

observe, describe, predict, control, explain

goals of psychology

sociology, psychology, economics, anthropology, political science, history

social sciences

biology, physics, chemistry

natural sciences

close-ended Questions

multiple choice questions


testing and applying research


a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do (allow prediction)


a rule or law (allow prediction)

clinical psychologist

ps helps people with psychological problems and to change behavior

counseling psychologist

ps treat people with adjustment problems and less serious disorders

school psychologist

ps identify and help students with problems that interfere with learning

educational psychologist

ps help students reach their potential

developmental psychologist

ps study changes that occur throughout a person's life span

personality psychologist

ps identify characteristics or traits (also, gender roles)

social psychologist

ps concerned with people's behavior in social situations

experimental (biological) psychologist

ps conduct research into basic processes such as the functions of the nervous system

basic research

has no immediate application and is done for its own sake (eventually put into practice)

industrial and organizational psychologist

ps focus on people and work

environmental psychologist

ps focus on the ways in which people influence and are influenced by physical environment

consumer psychologist

ps study the behavior of shoppers to explain and predict their behavior

forensic psychologist

ps work within the criminal justice system

health psychologist

ps examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health

ancient greece

first roots of psychology

"Know Thyself"

said by Socrates about examining our thoughts and feelings


"looking within" examining our thoughts and feelings to learn about ourselves; by Plato


Plato's student;outlined associationism


a learned connection between 2 ideas or events, scientific approaches, how experiences often remind us of similar ones in the past

"Peri Psyches"

Aristotle's "About the Mind"


Greek who suggested behavior problems are caused by abnormalities in the brain


Believed behavioral problems were the cause of gods who smite people

The Middle Ages

believed agitation and confusion were possession by demons, punishment for sins, deals with the devil

water float test

if you drowned you were human, if you floated you're a witch and would be burnt at the stake.

Nicolaus Copernicus

suggested Earth orbits the sun

Sir Isaac Newton

formulated laws of gravity and motion

John Locke

intelligence is not inborn but is learned from experience (associationism)

Antoine Lavousier

founded chemistry and explained how animals and plants use oxygen in respiration


Birth of modern psychology


beginning of psychology as a modern lab science

Wilhelm Wundt

formed structuralism


maintains that conscious experiences break down into objective sensations and subjective feelings

objective sensation

the taste of an apple

subjective feeling

thinking about how good a apple tastes

William James

formed functionalism

William James

said experience is a continuous "stream of consciousness"

Principles of Psychology

written to describe relationships between experience and behavior


emphasizes the purpose of behavior and mental processes, how mental processes help organisms adapt to environment

John Watson

formed behaviorism


scientific study of observable behavior (limited to observable, measurable events)

B.F. Skinner

formed reinforcement (people/animals are persuaded into acting certain ways)

Kenneth Clark

African American psychologist who studied prejudice and discrimination

Sigmund Freud

formed the school of psychoanalysis


emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts

psychodynamic thinking

most of what fills an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes

contemporary perspectives

p biological, evolutionary, cognitive, humanistic, psychoanalytic, learning, sociocultural

biological perspective

p emphasizes the influence of biology(hormones, health, chemicals) on our behavior (roots in associationism)

evolutionary perspective

p focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes (hereditary basis, inherited tendancies)

Charles Darwin

british scientist who said in struggle for survival, most adaptive organisms have a greater chance of surviving to maturity, to reproduce

cognitive perspective

p emphasizes the role that thoughts play in determining behavior (roots in "Know Thyself", introspection, structuralism, functionalism, and gestalt psychology)



cognitive perspective

p influenced by computer science, working memories and storage facilities, retrieving data. strategies for solving problems

humanistic perspective

p stresses human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness and the capacity to make choices

humanistic perspective

p believes personal experiences are most important aspect of psychology, free to choose own behavior! (unlike behaviorism) inner experience

psychoanalytic perspective

p stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior, less on unconscious secual aggressive impulses and more on conscious choice and self-direction (unconscious anger and feelings)

learning perspective

p emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior

social learning theory

p suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones

sociocultural perspective

p studies the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status on behaviors and mental processes

ethnic group

diversity by cultural heritage, race, language, and common history

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