Fad pads in the elbow seen on lateral view indicate....
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hair on end appereance in skull.
Collapse of vasculature. Seen in sickle cell anemia.
H shapes vertebrae in the spine.
Another name for Cooley's anemia
Hereditary disorder of hemoglobin synthesis (microcytic hypochromic anemia)
Widened Epiphysis (Seen in thalassemia)
Erlenmeyer Flask Deformity
Salt and Pepper Skull
Early: Bone within bone Late: Sandwich vertebrae
What radiographic signs do we see for osteopetrosis late and early?
Muscle tetany, weakness, and bone deformity.
Symptoms of rickets
Landmarks: from nasion to center of sella turcica. Then, from basion (anterior foramen magnum) to center of sella turcica. Significance: If angle is >152 degrees, indicates platybasia which may be associated with basilar impression.
Basilar Angle (Martin's Basilar Angle)
Landmarks: From hard palate to base of occiput Significance: If odontoid is >8mm above this line in males or >10mm above in females, indicates basilar impression.
This is most accurate line for basilar impression
Landmarks: Hard palate to opishtion (posterior foramen magnum) Significance: If odontoid is >7mm above this line, indicates basilar impression.
Landmarks: Anterior foramen magnum (basion) to posterior foramen magnum (opisthion). Significance: If occipital bone is above the line, this indicates basilar impression.
Landmarks: C1 Anterior tubercle to the odontoid Significance: If this space is >3mm in adults or >5mm in children, this indicates transverse ligament rupture or instability due to trauma, down's syndrome, or inflammatory arthritis.
Landmarks: Lines drawn at each spinolaminar djunction should form a smooth arc-like curve. Significance: Discontinued line may indicate A to P vertebral malposition like anterolisthesis or retrolisthesis.
Posterior Cervical Line
Landmarks: Lines drawn at posterior bodies of C2 and C7 Significance: Flexion should intersect at C5/C6. Extension should intersect at C4/C5. may be altered by muscle spasms, joint fixation, or disc degeneration.
Stress lines at cervical spine
Landmarks: Anterior Vb to posterior margin of air shadow of pharynx, larynx, and trachea Significance: The following is indicative of a soft tissue mass. - Retropharyngeal (C2-4): >7mm - Retrolaryngeal (C5): >14mm -Retrotracheal (C6-7): >22mm
Prevertebral Soft Tissues
Landmarks: Locate superior and inferior extremes of scoliosis. Draw parallel line through superior endplate of extreme superior vertebra and through inferior end plate of extreme inferior vertebra. Intersecting perpendicular lines are drawn and angle is measured. Significance: Scoliosis Evaluation
Cobb's Method of scoliosis Evaluation
Landmarks: Locate superior and inferior extremes of scoliosis and apical segment. Diagonal lines are drawn to locate the center of the VB. Two lines are drawn connecting center of apical segment with each end vertebra and resultant angle is measured. Significance: Scoliosis evaluation. Values are 25% below Cobb method of evaluation.
Risser-Ferguson Method of Scoliosis Evaluation
Landmarks: Tangential line of drawn parallel and through posterior margin of S1 and vertical line is draw intersecting the sacral line. Significance: Normal angle 30-72 degrees. Average angle is 46 degrees.
Also called Ferguson's angle or sacral base angle.
Landmarks: Oblique line drawn through and parallel to the sacral base. Horizontal line parallel to the bottom edge of the film Significance: Normal angle: 26-57 degrees. Average angle 41 degrees
Landmarks: Sacral base divided into quarters and relative position of the inferior aspect of L5 is made. Significance: Determines the degree of anterolisthesis.
Meyerding's Grading method of spondylolisthesis
Landmarks: Line drawn parallel and through the sacral base. Perpendicular line drawn from the sacral promontory. Significance: L5 is beyond the perpendicular line: Spondylolisthesis.
Landmarks: Line drawn to connect the tops of the superior and inferior articular processes. The distance to posterior body margin at the midpoint is measured. Significance: Measurement <15mm: Spinal canal stenosis.
Eisentein's Method for Sagittal canal measurement.
Landmarks: 4 landmarks are drawn. 1: Interpendicular distance 2: Sagittal canal dimension (eisenstein's method) 3: Transverse body dimension 4: Sagittal body dimension Significance: Ratio 1x2/3x4. THe higher the ratio the smaller the canal. If >1:6 at L3, L4, or 1:6.5 at L5, canal stenosis is indicated.
Landmarks: Lines are drawn parallel and through the inferior end plate of L5 and superior end plate of S1. Significance: Normal: 10-15
Lumbosacral disc angle
Also called Ferguson's line.
Landmarks: Vertical line is drawn through the center of the L3 vertebral body. Significance: Lines should intersect at sacral base. If line anterior: possible hyperlordosis. If line posterior to sacrum: Possible hypolordosis.
Lumbar Gravity Line
Landmarks: A line is drawn parallel and through the inferior end plate Significance: If line intersects the superior articular process of the vertebra below, extension malposition or face imbrication is suspected.
Landmarks: Curvilinear line is drawn along the inferior aspect of the TP, the inferior articular process, and through the joint space to the superior articular process of the vertebral below. Significance: Should be a smooth "S" shaped curve. An interruption in the S curve indicates subluxation or facet imbrication.
Hadley's "S" Curve
Landmarks: A line is drawn along the pelvic inlet to the outer aspect of the obturator foramen. Significance: If acetabular floor crosses the line, this indicates protrusio acetabuli.
Landmarks: A smooth curvilinear line is drawn along the inferior femoral neck to the superior aspect of the obturator foramen. Significance: An interrupted, discontinuous line indicates dislocation, neck fracture, or slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
Landmarks: A smooth curvilinear line is drawn along the outer ilium, across the joint, and onto the femoral neck. Significance: Bilateral asymmetry indicates a slipped femoral capital epiphysis, dislocation, fracture, or dysplasia.
Landmarks: Two lines are drawn through and parallel to the mid-axis of the femoral shaft and the femoral angle. Significance: Normal Angle is 120-130. <120 its coxa vera. >130 its coxa valga
Femoral Angle (Mikulicz's Angle)
Landmarks: A line is drawn through and parallel to the femoral shaft. A perpendicular line is drawn tangential to the tip of the greater trochanter. Significance: A fovea capitus should lie above or at the level of the trochanter line. If the fovea capitus falls below this line, it indicates fracture or coxa vara.
Landmarks: A line drawn along the outer margin of the femoral neck. Significance: The femoral head should intersect the line. Failure to intersect the line indicates a slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
Landmarks: A line is drawn between the superior and inferior patellar pole. A line is drawn between the inferior patellar pole and the tibial tubercle. Significance: Patellar length and patellar tendon length should be approximately equal. If the tendon length is 20% greater than the patellar length, this indicates patella alta.
Landmarks: Shortest distance is measured between the plantar surface of the calcaneus and the external skin contour. Significance: If this distance is >25mm in a male or >23mm in a female, this signifies increased thickness often associated with acromegaly.
Heel Pad Measurement
Landmarks: Three highest points on superior aspect of calcaneus are connected with two lines. Significance: If the resultant angle is < 28 degrees, this indicates calcaneal fracture or dysplastic calcaneus.
X-Ray Lines of mensuration, arthritides, BBT and Malignant neoplasms100 terms