Muhammad's son-in-law, the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq.
Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Writing that became Islam's highest art form.
The chosen city by the Umayyad Caliphs in Syria to be their capital.
Dome of the Rock
Mosque in Jerusalem where Muhammad ascended to heaven. Third holiest sight in Islam.
The holiest city of Islam and Muhammad's birthplace. Considered the religious capitol of Islam.
Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
The group of Muslims from North Africa who conquered Spain in the eighth century.
The study of how light behaves.
The Muslim classification used for Hindus, Christians, and Jews; they were allowed to follow their religions but had to pay a special tax.
A body of law governing the lives of muslims.
Party of Ali, believed that all Caliphs need to be descendant of Muhammad.
A group of Islamic religion that believes that its religious leader can be any muslim and should be elected based on merit.
A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means.
The city where Charles Martel defeated the Muslims stopping the spread of Islam into Western Europe.
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