43 terms

This set covers A Beka Book Physics: The Foundational Science, Chapter 12: "Energy and Momentum."

energy

term for the capacity to do work

kinetic energy

term for energy of motion

isolated, uniform

The kinetic energy equation assumes that the object is ____ and has undergone _____ acceleration from rest.

KE= 1/2mv^2

the kinetic energy equation

work-energy theorem

term for the equation describing the relationship between work and energy

Negative

_______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction opposite to motion.

Positive

_______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction of motion.

positive, stop

Kinetic energy is equal to the _____ work that one object can do on another while coming to a ____.

negative, stopped

Kinetic energy is equal in magnitude to the _____ work required for one object to be _____ by another.

potential energy

term for the energy an object acquires when it is exposed to a force

gravitational

An object in the vicinity of the earth has ______ potential energy as a result of being under the influence of gravity.

PE

abbreviation for potential energy

kinetic, potential

As a ball is thrown up into the air, its ____ energy is converted to ____ energy.

elastic force

term for an internal restorative force

F=-kx

equation for Hooke's law

conservative force

term for a force that undergoes the same energy change regardless of its path

gravitational force and elastic force

two examples of a conservative force

potential energy

For any object under the influence of a conservative force, _____ ____ is easily defined.

nonconservative force

term for a force whose energy change varies according to the length of its path

friction

an example of a nonconservative force

constant

In a system where the motions of individual bodies are governed solely by a conservative force, the total kinetic and potential energy of the system is _____.

dissipative force

term for a force that causes an interacting system to lose energy in the form of heat which is absorbed by the environment

friction

an example of a dissipative force

locations, path

The work done in moving an object restrained by a conservative force depends only on the initial and final _______ of the object; the work does not depend on the ____ taken.

mechanical energy

term for energy due to movement and position

law of conservation of mechanical energy

law that states that the total mechanical energy of a system is constant

True

True or False: Energy is conserved even where a nonconservative force like friction is operating.

law of conservation of energy

law that says that energy can be transformed from one kind to another but cannot be created or destroyed

False

True or False: There are a few known exceptions to the law of conservation of energy.

momentum

term for the product of an object's mass and velocity

momentum

Newton's second law says that force is equal to the time rate of change in _____.

masses

If two objects are to be accelerated to the same velocity in the same time, the required force depends on their ____.

opposite

A negative sign indicates that the force is ____ to motion.

inertia

Newton's first law states that any material object has ____.

False

True or False: Inertia conserves velocity in a system of objects.

law of conservation of momentum

law which states that when the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system remains constant

remains constant

When the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system _____ _____.

vector

Is momentum a vector quantity or a scalar quantity?

law of conservation of momentum

law that can predict the exact outcome of a collision

elastic collision

term for a collision in which energy of motion may be transferred from one object to another, but remains energy of motion

True

True or False: Most collisions are inelastic.

impulse

term for a vector in the same direction as the applied force; found by multiplying force by time

velocity change

The longer a constant force is applied to an object of constant mass, the greater the ____ ____.