43 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 12

This set covers A Beka Book Physics: The Foundational Science, Chapter 12: "Energy and Momentum."
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energy
term for the capacity to do work
kinetic energy
term for energy of motion
isolated, uniform
The kinetic energy equation assumes that the object is ____ and has undergone _____ acceleration from rest.
KE= 1/2mv^2
the kinetic energy equation
work-energy theorem
term for the equation describing the relationship between work and energy
Negative
_______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction opposite to motion.
Positive
_______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction of motion.
positive, stop
Kinetic energy is equal to the _____ work that one object can do on another while coming to a ____.
negative, stopped
Kinetic energy is equal in magnitude to the _____ work required for one object to be _____ by another.
potential energy
term for the energy an object acquires when it is exposed to a force
gravitational
An object in the vicinity of the earth has ______ potential energy as a result of being under the influence of gravity.
PE
abbreviation for potential energy
kinetic, potential
As a ball is thrown up into the air, its ____ energy is converted to ____ energy.
elastic force
term for an internal restorative force
F=-kx
equation for Hooke's law
conservative force
term for a force that undergoes the same energy change regardless of its path
gravitational force and elastic force
two examples of a conservative force
potential energy
For any object under the influence of a conservative force, _____ ____ is easily defined.
nonconservative force
term for a force whose energy change varies according to the length of its path
friction
an example of a nonconservative force
constant
In a system where the motions of individual bodies are governed solely by a conservative force, the total kinetic and potential energy of the system is _____.
dissipative force
term for a force that causes an interacting system to lose energy in the form of heat which is absorbed by the environment
friction
an example of a dissipative force
locations, path
The work done in moving an object restrained by a conservative force depends only on the initial and final _______ of the object; the work does not depend on the ____ taken.
mechanical energy
term for energy due to movement and position
law of conservation of mechanical energy
law that states that the total mechanical energy of a system is constant
True
True or False: Energy is conserved even where a nonconservative force like friction is operating.
law of conservation of energy
law that says that energy can be transformed from one kind to another but cannot be created or destroyed
False
True or False: There are a few known exceptions to the law of conservation of energy.
momentum
term for the product of an object's mass and velocity
momentum
Newton's second law says that force is equal to the time rate of change in _____.
masses
If two objects are to be accelerated to the same velocity in the same time, the required force depends on their ____.
opposite
A negative sign indicates that the force is ____ to motion.
inertia
Newton's first law states that any material object has ____.
False
True or False: Inertia conserves velocity in a system of objects.
law of conservation of momentum
law which states that when the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system remains constant
remains constant
When the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system _____ _____.
vector
Is momentum a vector quantity or a scalar quantity?
law of conservation of momentum
law that can predict the exact outcome of a collision
elastic collision
term for a collision in which energy of motion may be transferred from one object to another, but remains energy of motion
True
True or False: Most collisions are inelastic.
impulse
term for a vector in the same direction as the applied force; found by multiplying force by time
velocity change
The longer a constant force is applied to an object of constant mass, the greater the ____ ____.