Terms in this set (...)

Independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
A group of people about which we wish to draw conclusions
Random Sampling
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Placebo effect
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
Double-blind procedure
A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups.
Extraneous variables
any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
Confounding variables
A type of extraneous variable that directly affects how the independent variable acts on the dependent variable
independent group design
Participants are allocated to different groups where each group represents one experimental condition
Null hypothesis
A prediction that there is no difference between groups or conditions, or a statement or an idea that can be falsified, or proved wrong.
Ethical considerations
Issues of research that take into account the welfare of participants
Informed consent
A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail.
Correlational method
The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them (i.e., how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed
a type of research design where a comparison is made, as in an experiment, but no random assignment of participants to groups occurs
Alternative hypothesis
Scientific method
A standardised way of making observations, gathering data, testing hypotheses and interpreting results to establish theories