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Attach muscles to bones


A very broad tendon

Origin or head

Muscle end attached to more stationary of two bones


Muscle end attached to bone with greatest movement


Largest portion of the muscle between origin and insertion


Muscles that work together to cause a movement; prime mover, agonist, antagonist

Prime mover

Plays major role in accomplishing movement


Muscle causing an action when it contracts


A muscle working in opposition to agonist


Stabilize joint crossed by the prime mover

Unipennate muscle

all fasciculi on one side of the tendon

Bipennate muscle

meaning feather, fasciculi arranged like barbs of a feather on two sides of a common tendon

Circular muscle

(orbicular) orbicularis oris and oculi

Convergent muscle

fibers converge together (multipennate)

Multipennate muscle

fasciculi arranged at many places around the central tendon (triangular)

Parallel muscle

all fibers go in one direction (straight)

Named for Location

pectoralis (chest), gluteus (buttock), brachial (arm)

Named for Size

maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), longus (long), brevis (short)

Named for Shape

deltoid (triangular), quadratus(quadrate), teres (round), fuisform (like a pump handle), trapezium (like the trapezius), triangular

Named for Orientation

rectus (straight), oblique (oblique to longitudinal axis)

Named for Origin and insertion

sternocleidomastoid (originates on sternum and inserts on the mastoid process of temporal bone), brachioradialis (originates on the brachium, arm, and inserts onto the radius)

Named for Number of heads

biceps, triceps

Named for Function

abductor (moves away from midline), adductor (moves toward midline), masseter (chewer)

Muscle contractions

A pull or force by relative positions of lever (Rigid shaft or bone), Fulcrum (Pivot point or joint), and Weight (resistance)

Class I Lever

Fulcrum between force and weight. Seesaw or head movement

Class II Lever

Weight is between fulcrum and pull. Wheelbarrow, standing on toes

Class III Lever

Pull located between fulcrum and weight. Person using a shovel. Most common

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