environmental science exam 1

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environmental scienceinterdisciplinary study of how humans interact with the biotic and abiotic parts of their immediate environment and the major climate system components3 goals of environmental sciencelearn how nature works, to understand how we interact with the environment, and to find ways to deal with environmental problems and to live more sustainablyecologyscience that investigated how organisms interact with one another and with their environmentorganismAny living thing; each one belongs to a speciesspeciessame set of characteristics that distinguishes them from all other organismsecosystemset of organisms within a defined area/volume that interact with one another and with their environment of non living matter/energybioticliving (bacteria, food sources, plants)abioticNon-living (temperature, pressure, wind)environmentalismsocial movement dedicated to protecting earths life support systems for all forms of lifesustainability mythsnobody knows what it rly means, it's all about the environment, it means green, all about recycling, too expensive to implement, requires low standard of living, consumer choices not government intervention offers fastest route to it; technology is the answer, ultimately a problem of higher populations, easy to implementsustainabilitycapacity of the earths natural systems and human cultural systems to survive flourish and adapt to changing environmental conditions into the foreseeable futuremeasuring sustainabilitydevelopment, footprint, IPATmeasuring sustainability: developmenteconomic growth, measured by per capita gross domestic producteconomic growthincrease in a nation's output of goods and servicesmeasuring sustainability: footprintif footprint larger than biological capacity to replenish itself then we are in ecological deficit; originally carbon footprint, estimate how much of the earth or how many earths it would take to support humanity, recalculated annuallyculture and footprintssocietal knowledge beliefs technology practices, changes the effect you have on earthecological footprintmeasure of biologically available land and water needed to provide all of the people in a country/area/world with an indefinite supply of renewable resources and to absorb/recycle waste that is produced properly3 major cultural changes in timeagricultural revolution, industrial revolution, information revolutionfiidbiggest component, energy associated with food production identified and accounted for, area required for growing crops and rearing animals calculated using global yield factors and converted to global hectaresUS footprinttwice the global average, highest footprint, requires 4 earths to maintain our way of life; more suburban sprawl, less public transportation and less efficient vehicles, use more energy and water per person than other countries, carnivoresglobal footprinthumanity demands 1.4 earths, it takes ~18 months for the earth to regenerate what we use in one yearresource distribution3 billion ppl responsible for just 6% of the total , 5% of worlds population uses 33% of resources, 500 million ppl on the planet (7% of the population) is responsible for 50% of all CO2 emissions; planet would just support 1.4 billion pplIPATa simple model showing how population size, affluence, and the beneficial and harmful environmental effects of technologies help to determine the environmental impact of human activities. IMPACT = population x affluence x technology; useful in determining impacts of a given population (MA, family, global) on environmentaffluenceusually per capita gross domestic product, represents consumptiontechnologyrepresents impact involved in creating transporting disposing of goods services amenities, improvements in efficiency reduce T multiplier, case sensitiveimpact is finiteecosystem/species has a carrying capacitycarrying capacitymaximum population that can be sustained given finite resources; estimated 10 billion peopletipping pointstime delay between use of resources and harmful impacts, allow problems to build slowly to a tipping point, causes an irreversible shift in the behavior of the natural system (ex. collapse of a fishery, premature extinctions, climate change)3 principles of sustainabilityrely on solar energy, biodiversity, chemical cyclingrely on solar energysun provides heat - circulation, sun provides light - photosynthesis, plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygenphotosynthesisConversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.biodiversityvariety of organisms necessary for economical goods and services, provides system for adaptationchemical cyclingmostly from soil and water, nutrient cycling requiredenvironmental degradationanthropogenic habits create unsustainable future vis waste production, depletion, and degradation of environment at accelerating ratenatural capitalimportant facet of sustainability; natural resources and services that support the environment and hunansnatural goodsmaterials that provide economic value to humans (fish plants medicines lumber)natural servicesprocesses nature performs (photosynthesis, water purification)Natural Resourceanything we can obtain from the environment (solar energy, topsoil, paper)perpetual resourcecontinuous supply for at least 6 billion yearsrenewable resourcerequires hundreds of years to replenish itself (grasslands, forests)nonrenewable resourcefixed quantitypollutionany presence in environment of a chemical or other agent that is harmful to health, survival, activities of humans and/or environment, most prevalent form of degradation (noise, heat, biological, chemical)impacts of pollutiondisrupt/degrade life support systems, damage wildlife, human health, property, create problems (odor, noise)types of pollutionpoint source and non-point sourcepoint source pollutionsingle identifiable source such as a drainage pipenon-point source pollutiondispersed sources such as farm runoff into a rivertypes of pollutantsBiodegradable and nondegradablebiodegradable pollutantsharmful but break down over time (sewage, paper)non-biodegradable pollutantschemicals that natural processes cannot break down (lead, mercury, arsenic)pollution cleanuppopulation and consumption levels increasing at the same time, cleanup is temporary solution, removes a pollutant from one area to cause pollution in another, once pollutants dispersed in environment, costly to reduce them to acceptable levels, need for pollution prevention focuspollution is a public problemprivate property, common property, open access renewable resourceprivate property pollutionowned rights to land, minerals, resourcescommon property pollutionrights held by large groups of people (1/3 of US land owned by all citizens and government manages this land)open access renewable resource pollutiokowned by no one and anyone can use without charges (atmosphere, open ocean)tragedy of the commonsa parable that illustrates why common resources are used more than is desirable from the standpoint of society as a whole; if i do not use this resource someone will so i should use it all, if i pollute a little bit it won't matter especially since its renewblaSolutions to Tragedy of the Commonsuse the shared resources at a sustainable rate (estimate the sustainable yield, regulate access to the resource, laws and regulations to limit resource use), convert resource to private ownership (if you own something you take care of it more, not possible for a lot of environmental resources like atmosphere and required government intervention)causes of environmental problemshuman population is growing at a rapid rate, affluence, poverty, economics, viewpointsenvironmentally sustainable societyprotect natural capital and live off its income, work together to solve environmental problems, individuals matter, focus on the 3 principlessciencehuman effort to discover how the physical world works. y making observations and measurements and carrying out experiments, based on the assumption that events in the physical world follow orderly cause and effect patterns that we can understand, integrate the scientific method to solve problemsscientific methodidentify a problem, research, hypothesis*, methods (data collection, experiments)*, conclusionConclusion (Scientific Method)if hypothesis is wrong suggest alternative explanations for the correct hypothesis, if correct and generally agreed upon in the scientific community it becomes a theoryTheoryA hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data; can still be disproven and merely provides an explanation for a given phenomenalawa well tested theory that repeatedly creates the same outcome (gravity or thermodynamics)tentative resultsnot yet considered reliable or not; too new or too little information to decidereliable resultsdata, hypothesis, models, theories, laws that are widely accepted by all or most scientists in a fieldunreliable resultsdiscarded or not peer reviewed like wikipedia and other websitesmatteranything that takes up space and has mass; can exist in 3 physical states; can also exist in 2 chemical forms3 physical states of mattersolid, liquid, gas2 chemical forms of matterelement or compoundelementtype of matter that has a unique set of properties and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means (gold cannot be broken down further)compoundstwo or more elements combined (water is hydrogen and oxygen)atomic numbernumber of protons; each element has thisatomic massneutrons and protons (most mass in nucleus so electrons excluded)isotopessame atomic number but different mass numbers; same element (isotopes of carbons), have a different number of neutrons only, same number of protons and electrons do change is the sameioncharged particle (+ or -), have more protons or electrons, calcium has two more protons than electrons so it has a +2 chargeaciditycharacteristic that helps determine how a substance dissolved in water will interact with and affect its environment; based on comparing amounts of hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxide ion (OH-) in a solution, pH is a measure of aciditypHmeasure of acidity; pure water = 7 (neutral), pH > 7 (basic), pH < 7 (acidic)atomsmallest unit of matter into which an element can be divided and retain characteristicsmoleculecombination of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds (molecule of methane (CH4) is one carbon bound to four hydrogen atoms) -> molecule and compound; (molecule of oxygen is two oxygen atoms bound together (O2)) -> molecule but not compoundneutronno chargeprotonpositive chargeelectronnegative charge3 subatomic particlesprotons, neutrons, electrons; neutrons and protons in nucleus in the center of an atom and electrons circle the nucleussubscriptsshow number of each atom/ion (if none; assumed to be 1)superscriptsshow charge of ions (if no ion assume neutral)organic compoundcontains 2+ carbon atomsinorganic compoundscontains 1 carbon atom at mostcellsfunctional units of living matter; all organisms have themgenespieces of DNA with genetic information to make proteinschromosonemade up of thousands of genes; humans have 46; makes us uniquematter qualitymeasure of how useful a given form of matter is to us as a resourcehigh quality matterhighly concentrated, found near surface and very usefullow quality matterlocated deep underground or in ocean and little potential as a resourcematter changesphysical (liquid heating up and becoming vapor), chemical (burning coal converts carbon to carbon dioxide)matter is conservedmatter is never destroyed or createdenergythe capacity to do work or transfer heat; work is done when any object is moved a certain distance2 types of energykinetic and potentialkinetic energythe energy an object has due to its motion; moving objects have this (flowing water, wind)potential energystores and potentially available for use (water in a resource or, energy in coal)fossil fuelscoal, oil/petroleum, natural gas; they take a very long time to form; formed from plant and animal remains at intense heat and pressure; depleting them much faster than they can be replacedthermodynamicsThe study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.laws of thermodynamicsno energy is created or destroyed, when energy is changed from one form to another it always goes from a more useful to a less useful formenergy qualitymeasure of capacity of a type of energy to do workhigh quality energygreat capacity to do useful world because it is highly concentrated (high heat, concentrated sunlight, coal energy)low quality energydispersed and so not useful for work (low heat)systemsa set of components that function and interact in some regular way; human body, ocean, economy; all systems have inputs flows and outputs; input always equals outputfeedback loopsoutput of matter/energy/information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to a change in that system; can have synergistic interactions where effects enhanced by each other; often a lag time in feedback loopspositive feedback loopcauses the system to change further in the same direction (decreasing vegetation - erosion - more vegetation dies); positive feedback loops are of concern in environmental sciencenegative/corrective feedback loopcauses the system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving (thermostat)earth systematmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, cryosphereatmospherethin envelope of gases around earths surface; troposphere, stratosphere, mesospheretroposphere (in atmosphere)inner layer, closest to surface (nitrogen 78% oxygen 21% argon and GHG 1%), we live here, weather occurs here; chemically homogenous for 11 milesstratosphere (in atmosphere)contains ozone layerozone layerProtective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.mesosphere (in atmosphere)thermosphere, exospherethermosphereThe uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increasesexosphereThe outer layer of the thermosphere, extending outward into space.ionosphereionized part of atmosphere, ions created from suns rayshydropshereall water in earth, not just ocean (97% is ocean), water vapor in the atmosphere, puddlescryosphereanything frozen; ice caps, glaciers, snow, permafrost (ice in frozen soil); our largest freshwater supple is locked in cryospherelithisphereearth has layers; climate system component housing crust and mantleearths layerscrust, mantle, outer core, inner corecore of earthhot heavy metals like iron (most of the geosphere is in the core)mantle of earthrock layercrust of earththin layer where plates are, we are and all minerals we need are (very brittle - earthquakes, larger elements - aluminum, carbon)biosphereanywhere life is found; exist in all of the other componentswhere does suns heat come fromHydrogen atoms fuse together to form molecules and release heat to spacehow does heat from sun get to the earthelectromagnetic waves composed of visible light, UV radiation and heat (infrared radiation)greenhouse effect50% of incoming radiation is reflected by atmosphere, this radiation degraded to low quality infrared radiation and bounced back to space after used on earth; as infrared (heat) leaves earth, encounters greenhouse gases that trap the heat; natural greenhouse effect is good and earth wouldn't be able to survive without GHGgreenhouse gasesmethane, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide - tropospheric ozonelargest GHG by columecarbon dioxide - fossil fuels are major contributor of thispopulationgroups of individuals in the same species in the same place, may have different genetic makeup (clown fish occupying the same coral reef)communitypopulations of different species in the same place; clown fish, other fish, mollusks within coral reefecosystemdifferent species interacting with non living environmentbiome/landscapeset of ecosystems sharing similar characteristics with their abiotic factors adapted to their environments (tropical coral reefs, freshwater marsh)biospheresum of all ecosystems; any part of earth where life is foundtropic levelsfeeding level and based on an organisms food supplyproducers/autotrophsself feeders; take nutrients they need from environment via photosynthesis or chemosynthesisconsumers/heterotrophscan not produce nutrients from processed and must eat other organismsphotosynthesisplants capture sunlight on their leaves and use it to make food; about 50% of photosynthesis happens on land and half in ocean (plankton)photosynthesis equationCarbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen (6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2)chemosynthesisbacteria without access to light use this; deep ocean is wheee most chemosynthesis occurs at hydrothermal ventsherbivores/primary consumerseat plantscarnivoreseat meatsecondary consumerscarnivores that eat herbivorestertiary consumersonly eat secondary consumersquaternary consumers/omnivoreseat only tertiary consumersDecomposersvery important tropic level; decompose organic matter that travels through food chain/web for their energy (dead tissues and feces) (ex. soil bacteria, fungi, invertebrates); return nutrients back into useable forms for autotrophs to begin another food chain (sustainability principle 3)respirationchemical energy stored in glucose fuels is; energy released via aerobic respiration (converts oxygen to glucose)respiration equationglucose + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide + energy (C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy)fermentationdecomposers can break down glucose without oxygen AKA anaerobic respirationfood chainsequence of organisms, each of which serves as a food or energy source for the next (determines how chemical energy and nutrients move along trophic levels; every step of the chain involves a loss of some high quality energy to heatfood webmost organisms feed on more than one source (several interconnected food chains, same trophic levels apply)biomassA measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular regionGross Primary Productivity (GPP)rate at which producers convert solar energy into biomassNet Primary Productivity (NPP)rate at which producers use photosynthesis to produce less rate of respirationbiogeochemical cycleslife-earth-chemical cycles of nutrients; cycles driven by solar energy and mass balancereservoirsstorage sites for a nutrientfluxtransfer of nutrient between reservoirsresidence timeaverage amount of time that a particle spends in a reservoir; residence time = reservoir size / inflow ratewater cycleThe continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back; water is the only substance found in all 3 states (phases) at ambient temperatureboiling point of water100 degrees Celsius (212 F)melting point water0 degrees Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheitpolarityin each water molecule the oxygen atom attracts more than its fair share of electrons; the oxygen end acts negative; the hydrogen end acts positive; causes the water to be polar; water is neutral (equal number of e- and p+) zero net chargehydrogen bondshydrogen atom attracted by strong forces to two atoms instead of only onecohesionH-bonds hold water together; plays a key role in transport of water against gravity in plantsadhesionattraction between two different substances; water will make hydrogen bonds with other surfaces; water adheres to the wall of the vessels in plantsheat capacityratio of the amount of energy absorbed to the associated temperature rise (ex. if it takes 10 calories to raise the temp of s glass of water by 2 degrees C then the heat capacity of the water is 10 calories / 2 = 5 calories per degree Cspecific heatheat capacity of a substance per unit massevaporative coolingthe cooling of a surface occurs when the liquid evaporates (responsible for moderating earth's climate, stabilizes temperature in aquatic ecosystems)universal solventdissolved salts and other ionic compounds as well as alcohols and organic acidsWhy does ice float?It is less dense than waterhydrological cycle (water cycle)describes the distribution and movement of water between the earth and its atmosphere; continual circulation of water between the climate componentsevaporationincoming solar energy causes evaporation if water from water bodies; changes liquid into gastranspiration90% of water evaporates from plants and soil during this process; water held in soil and as groundwater in aquifersprecipitationgravity pulls gas into waterHuman impacts on water cyclewithdraw a lot of water for irrigation of crops, lan use change (conversion of wetlands to housing), pollution, dams, climate change (melting ice, raising sea level)carbon cyclebalance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (atmosphere <-> biosphere) of the carbon cyclecarbon released to atmosphererespiration by plants and animals, decay of animal and plant matter, combustion of organic material, production of cement/fossil fuels, the ocean releases CO2 into the atmosphere, volcanic eruptionsCarbon removed from the atmospherephotosynthesis, carbon dioxide, methane, oceans when the seawater becomes cooler, more CO2 dissolve and become carbonic acidtwo main forms of carboncarbon dioxide and methane; both absorb and retain heat in the atmosphere and are GHGs; methane 20x more other but exists in lower concentrationsoceangreatest quantity of actively cycled carbon; carbon enters mostly through rivers as dissolved organic carbon; converted through photosynthesis; can be exchanged in food chain or precipitated; gods cis thermohaline circulatiombiosphere - carbonincludes organic carbon in all land living organisms alive and dead; 1/3 terrestrial carbon is inorganic (calcium carbonate; diurnal cycle because dependent on biotic factors; carbon leaves this in many ways and in many time scaleslithosphere - carbonoperates slowly in comparison to rest of cycle; most carbon inert in lithosphere; can leave geosphere via subduction, extraction, etc.; long term carbon cyclelong term carbon cycleexchange between lithosphere and any other componenthuman impacts - carbonfossil fuels add GHG to atmosphere; land use change (deforestation)nitrogen fixationextremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen (N2); difficult for both organisms and industry to converting into useful compounds; release of large amounts of useful energy when the compounds burn, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gasnatural fixationatmospheric nitrogen - organic nitrogen (nitrogen has from atmosphere "fixed" to a useable form by nitrogen-fixing bacteria; energetically costly and unfavorable (electrical storms, lightning, bacteria: enzyme nitrogen add and iron is required for reaction); forms NOx as by-product (air pollutant)NOxNO and NO2; produced from reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in the air during combustion at high temperatures; reacts to form acid rain and tropospheric ozone; not nitrous acid (N2O); it is an air pollutantN2Onitrous oxide; greenhouse gas and food additiveacid rainwater and NOxwhere Do we get the energy required to break of the strong nitrogen bondfossil fuelsIndustrial fixationNitrogen fixation performed by people to produce fertilizers and industrial chemicals.Why do we use industrial fixationartificial fertilizer production is now the largest source of human produced fixed nitrogen on earthInternal combustionan engine that burns fuel inside cylinders within the engine; The exhaust emissions of cars contribute a lot to atmospheric pollution in the form of NOxorganic nfound in living cells in component of proteins peptides and amino acidsAmmonificationOrganic matter created from fixation must be returned back into in organic forms; first step in this process is solublization and ammonification; organic products are degradedsolublizationDissolvingAmmoniumAmmonia reacts with water and protons to form thisAmmoniain organic form of nitrogen; least stable form of nitrogen in water; easily transformed to nitrate when oxygen present and can be transformed to nitrogen gas when environment is low in oxygenAmmoniumWaste product of the metabolism of animals (can be excreted directly into environment or to your area or converted into uric acid); important source of nitrogen for money plant species especially those growing in hypoxic areas; Source of nutrients in remote marine environmentsNitrificationAmmonium is converted to nitrite And ultimately nitrate; this is the only energy source for nitrifying bacteria (chemoautotrophs); A modification stimulates growth for nitrite oxidizers; nitrite oxidizers convert ammonium into nitrite; elevated nitrite Concentrations stimulate nitrate oxidizer growth; these bacteria convert nitrites into nitrate; all dissolved in organic N oxidized to nitrateDenitrificationNitrates and nitrites can be used as a source of oxygen for bacteria; nitrate is reduced to nitrite and then N2 gas; Balances nitrogen fixationPhosphorusphosphorus is almost always present as inorganic phosphate rocks; the vast majority of phosphorus compounds are consumed as fertilizers; essential for life;Phosphorus cycleReferred to as the mineral cycle; phosphorus is mainly found in water soil and rock (there is no gas Phase of phosphoru); The phosphorus cycle is the skowest cycle; phosphorus is an ocean sediments as phosphate salts; Released from rocks through weathering, dissolve in the soil water, absorbed by plants, eaten by animals, animals die and phosphates return to soil and ocean, rock formation begins and takes a really long timeWhy do we need phosphorusLimiting nutrient of photosynthesis, rock and land formation, river nutrients and necessary for a strong teeth and bones, genetic material, energyHuman impacts of phosphorus cycleFertilizers increase phosphorus run off into our waterways and contributes to eutrophicationEutrophicationA process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.sulfurEssential element for all life, present in the vitamins biotin in thiamine; Important part of many enzymes and an antioxidant molecules; component of all proteins as the amino acids cysteine and methionine; disulfide Bonds are largely responsible for the strength and in solubility of the protein keratin found an outer skin hair and feathersSulfur cycleMost sold for in a particular form a.k.a. sedimentary cycle; very short residence time in atmosphere (1 to 2 days); 90 to 95% SO2 From power plants and factories; Transferred into biosphere them back into ground or from ground to atmosphere; micro organisms turn into gas in soil; oxidize in atmosphere to S02 and then to H2S04 with water contact (acid rain); mind orders released to atmosphere in factories as H2 S &S02 (volcanoes and Hot Springs); Deposited in water through precipitation deposition leeching; either reverberated left a sediment for a long time or deposited on land; when back on land the cycle repeatsHuman impacts of sulfurMining, fossil fuel's, sulfur diesel, 28% of sulfur in overs from pollution mining erosionSOxSulfur oxide and sulfur dioxide; air pollutants; react with water to form acid rain; causes respiratory problems in humansStudying ecosystemsDirectly laboratory and modelsTypes of diversityecosystem, species, genetic, functionalSpecies diversityNumber and variety of species in an ecosystem; species richness; species evenness; species Rich and even ecosystems tend to be more productive in there for sustainableSpecies richnessNumber of different species present (high richness is better a species can use different parts of the ecosystem)Species evennessComparative numbers of individuals in each species presentEvolutionEarths life changes over time through changes in the genetic characteristics of populations; all species descended from earlier ancestral species; life comes from life; Darwin propose natural selection as a mechanism for evolutionNatural selectionindividual organisms must struggle constantly for survival and only the fittest survive; fittest have genetic traits eating in survivalDifferential reproductionThose with adaptive trades Musser reproduce more than those with though for population to evolveMutationsRandom changes in DNA molecules that is inherited by an offspringtectonic platesSolid plates of a rock on the earths crust that are constantly movingSpeciationOne species splits into two or moreReproductive isolationMutations cause populations to become so different that they cannot successfully reproduce anymoreGeographic isolationdifferent groups of same population of a species physically isolated (stream or mountain range)nicheEach species has a role in an ecosystem a.k.a. species way of life; inclusive of everything affecting its survival like water food and temperature; not the same as habitatGeneralist speciesbroad niches And the less prone to extinctionSpecialist speciesSpecies with a narrow ecological niche. They may be able to live in only one type of habitat, tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or use only one type or a few types of food.Native speciesNormally live and thrive in a given ecosystemNon-native/invasive speciesIntroduced into an ecosystemIndicator speciesProvide early warnings of damage to a communityKeystone speciesSpecies whose Rolls have a large affect on the types and abundance of other species in an ecosystem; provides the foundation of a habitatextinctioncan be local or globalendemic speciesonly in one area and especially vulnerable to extinctionFoundation speciesshape and enhance ecosystem; maintains the habitatmass extinctionevent in which many types of living things become extinct at the same timebackground extinctiongradual process of a species becoming extinctinterspecific competitionmembers of different species interact to gain access to the same resources; greater niche overlap = greater interspecific competition; most common relationship - predatory/preyresource partitioningspecies competing for similar resources evolve traits to allow them to share resourcecoevolutionpopulations of two different species interact in such a way that the genetic mutations of one can lead to genetic mutations in the other (bats eat moths via echolocation at night -> certain moths develop ears sensitive to the echolocation and can escape; cats have begun switching frequencies of echolocation)symbiosisliving togethersymbiotic relationshipsparasitism, mutualism, commensalismparasitismbenefits one but the other species suffersmutualismbenefits both speciescommensalismbenefits one and doesn't affect otherpopulation dynamicsThe study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size.4 variables that govern population sizebirth rate, death rate, migration and age structurepopulation change equationpopulation change = (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)age structuredistribution of individuals among age groups; has affect on growth of population; age groups usually defined by reproductionlimiting factors of populationphysical or chemical factors that determine the number of organisms in a population; can also have too much of somethingrange of tolerancevariations in its physical and chemical environment that a species can tolerate (optimal range of temperature for fish)environmental resistancecombination of all factors fat act to limit the growth of a populationJ curvepopulation with little limitations grows 1-2% annually; exponential growth is slow and then accelerates as the base size of the population frowsS curveinitial slow growth; increases rapidly; eventually stabilizesstable population changepopulation close to carrying capacityirruptive population changeerupt to high peak, crash to more stable level (short lives species like insects)cyclic population changepopulations change on a schedule (like every ten years)irregular population changeno patternprimary ecological successionestablishment of boots in lifeless areas (rock/glacier); takes hundreds-thousands of years to build proper environmentsecondary ecological successionestablishment where soil/sediment present - weeks to form systemstabilitycapacity to withstand external change in response to changing environmental conditionsinertia/persistence stabilityability of system to survive moderate disturbanceresilience stabilityability of system to be restored through secondary succession after more severe disturbancesbirth ratecrude; number of births per 1,000 people in a population in a yeardeath ratecrude; number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a yearfertility ratenumber of women born to one woman in her lifetimereplacement level fertility rateaverage number of children that couples must bear in a population to replace themselvestotal fertility rateaverage number of children born to a population during their reproductive yearsbirth rate factorsimportance of children as labor force, cost of raising and educating children, availability of private and public pension system, infant deaths, urbanization, educational opportunities for women, average age of marriage, legal abortion availability, religious beliefsdeath rate factorslife expectancy, infant mortality rate, child mortality rate, 4 million babies die each year from preventable causes (nutrition, medicine, clean drinking water are leading causes)life expectancyaverage number of years a newborn is expected to liveinfant mortality ratenumber of babies out of 1,000 born who die before first birthdaychild mortality ratedeaths before age 5migrationimmigration and emigration; 190 million people migrated to different countries in 2015 alone; seeking job opportunities, religious persecution, political oppression, environmental degradation (extreme weather, resource depletion); 40 million environmental refugees in 2010 and this number increased 1 million annuallyimmigrationinto countryemigrationout of countryage structurepercentages of males and females broken down by reproductive age: pre reproductive age (0-14), reproductive age (15-44), post-reproductive age (45+)slowing human population growthreduce poverty through economic development and universal primary education; demographic transition, empower and educate women, promote family planningdemographic transitionas countries become more industrialized and economically developed, death rates decline and birth rates decline4 stages of demographic transitionpreindustrial, transitional, industrial, postindustrialPreindustrial stage of demographic transitionpopulation grows very slowly because of high birth rate (to compensate for high infant mortality) and a high death ratetransitional stage of demographic transitionpopulation grows rapidly because birth rates are high and death rates drop because of improved food production and healthindustrial stage of demographic transitionpopulation growth slows as both birth and death rates drop because of improved food production, health, and educationpost-industrial stage of demographic transitionpopulation towers levels off and then declines as birth rates equal and then fall below death ratesclimatevaries because patterns of global air circulation and ocean currents distribute heat and precipitation unevenly over time3 major factors on how air circulates in lower atmosphereuneven hearing of earth by sun, rotation of earth on its axis, properties of air, water, and landuneven heatingocean and atmosphere strongly linked, ocean currents affected by wind in the atmosphere, heat in the ocean affects atmospheric circulation; most of the suns heat hits at equator and is distributedrotationsun goes through natural cycles; 3 factors; orbital shape, tilt; and precession; can cause 25% difference in radiationearth surfaceheat is absorbed and released more slowly by water than land and creates land and sea breezes; heat is absorbed more by dark surfaces than light surfaces; mountains deflect winds; cities can create microclimates (building materials absorb heat and block wind flow, cars and factories release heat and pollutants create smog)biomesclimate molds different kinds, not uniform, climate and vegetation vary with latitude and elevationdesertsannual precipitation is low and often uneven throughout the year, day is hot with lots of evaporation; night is cold as heat in the ground leaves quickly, little vegetation to store heat and water, fragile systems due to low nutrient cycling and little water supply3 types of desertstropical, temperate, coldtropical desertsahara; hot and dry most of the time; few planestemperate desertarizona, southern california; more precipitation than tropical and sparse vegetation (cacti)cold desertgobi; vegetation, seasons and low precipitationgrasslandstropical (savanna), temperate (prairies), cold (tundra) - permafrost, intense winters, fragile and nutrient poorrainforestsnear equator, high net primary productivity, high biodiversity, high and efficient nutrient cycling, 1/2 global rainforests destroyedforeststemperate and northerntemperate forestmoderate average temperatures that change seasonally (fewer decomposers and cooler temperatures)northern forestample rainfall/moisturemountainscontain majority of worlds forests, house many endemic species, storehouses for water (stores as ice during winter and then melts and releases)aquatic biodiversitydiversity of biological organisms in water; distribution determined by salinity; 2 major aquatic life zones (saltwater/marine life and freshwater life)salinityamounts of salts dissolved in a given volume of watersaltwater/marine life zonesocean, bay, estuaries, coastal systems, reefsfreshwater life zoneslakes, rivers, streams, and inland wetlandsoceansone; is divided into geographical sub-oceans and seasmarine natural capital servicesclimate moderation, carbon dioxide sequestration, nutrient cycling, waste treatment, reduced storm impactsmarine nature capital goodsfood, pharmaceuticals, transportation/recreation, oil and natural gasmajor ocean groupsplants and animals in the ocean are classified based on their habits and the depth of water in which they life: plankton, nekton, benthos, decomposersplanktonfloat at or near the surface where sunlight can penetrate, most of the plankton are very small (algae), drift with the currents or tides, main food for many larger organisms, 1/2 of worlds photosynthesis from plankton; found in all water not just oceanultraplanktonbacteriaphytoplanktonplantszooplanktonanimalsnektonwhales, seals, dolphins, squid octopuses, barracuda and other fish; free swimming organisms that feed on other nekton as well as on plankton; many have adaptations enabling them to function at depths that gave great pressure and no lightbenthosorganisms that live on the ocean floor; crabs and lobsters; the deep bottom environments are sparsely populated with them; some are plants that live on the ocean floor in shallow waters where sun can penetratecoastal zonewarm nutrient rich shallow water systems; high tide mark on land to continental shelf; less than 19% of ocean area but 90% of species live here; most fisheries here; most carbon absorbed in oceans here; estuaries, mangroves, coral reefsestuariesrovers meet the sea, partially closed, brackish, have associates coastal wetlands; life must adapt to daily and seasonal changes in tides temp salinity; mangroves are found at 70% of tropical coastlinesmangrovestropical trees that grow along coasts and help maintain the health of coastal environmentsbrackishhaving a salty taste and unpleasant to drinkcoral reefsform in clear warm coastal waters in tropics/subtropics; 25% of the worlds coral reefs have been damagedthreats to coral reefsocean warming, sediment from erosion, excessive algal growth, rising sea levels, hurricanesintertidal zonetides created by gravitational pull of the moon, rise and fall every 6 hours in most coastal areas, area of shoreline between low and high tideopen seasharp increase in water depth at the edge of the continental shelf separates coastal zone from open sea; has 3 layers: euphotic, bathyal, abyssalEuphotic Zone (open sea)photic light, lots of sunlight and photosynthesis, low levels of nutrients and high oxygen levels , fast fish (tuna, sharks) feed hereBathyal Zone (open sea)middle dimly lit zone, little sunlight and photosynthesis, animals living here typically migrate to photic zone to feed and then migrate back downabyssal zone (open sea)bottom layer, cold and no sunlight, chemosynthesis thrives here, little oxygen; marine snow, deposit feeders, filter feedersmarine snowfalling dead carcasses and poopdeposit feederstake mud into guts and extract nutrients (worms)filter feederspass water though bodies for nutrients (oysters)freshwater natural capital serbicesgroundwater recharge, habitats, biodiversityfreshwater natural capital goodsdrinking water, irrigation water, hydropower, employmentfreshwater ecosystemslentic and lotic: cover less than 2% of surfacelentic freshwater ecosystemstanding bodies of freshwater (lakes)lotic freshwater ecosystemsflowing bodies of freshwater (rivers)lakesformed from precipitation, runoff, etc.; depressions caused by glaciation, displacement of earth's crust, volcanic activitylake zoneslittoral, limnetic, profundal, benthiclittoral lake zonenear the shore with lots of sunlight; lots of plant life and biodiversity, lots of nutrient runoffxlimnetic lake zoneopen surface layer away from shore that is the depth of water that receives sunlight; where most photosynthesis occursprofundal lake zonedeep open water where it's dark; colder and no oxygen/plantsbenthic lake zonebottom layer with decomposerslake nutrientslakes classified according to nutrient content and primary productivity; oligotropic, mesotrophic, eutrophicoligotrophic lakelow nutrients, deep water and low photosynthesismesotrophic lakeaverage amount of nutrientseutrophic lakehigh nutrients, shallow and lots of sunlightrunoffsurface water, becomes runoff when it flows into streams and rivers, watershed/drainage basin, flow of surface water occurs by transition through 3 aquatic life zonessurface waterprecipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporatewatershed/drainage basinland area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances into a streamrunoff zonessource, transition, floodplainsource zone of riverusually an upland source of water that is quickly flowingtransition zone of riverheadwater streams merge to form wide deep warm streamsFloodplain zone of a riverwider deeper rivers flowing through valleysinland wetlandscovered with freshwater all of part of the time, marshes swamps prairie potholes, flood plains and tundra excess water during rainy seasons and floodsinland wetland servicesfilter and degrade toxic wastes and pollutants, reduce flooding and erosion, replenish streams during dry periods, recharge groundwater, maintain biodiversity, ecosystem foods (rice, berries, fish), recreationhuman impacts of freshwater systemsdams and canals fragment 40% of major rivers and destroy habitats/biodiversity; flood control levees disconnect rivers from floodplains; pollution and excess nutrient runoff - eutrophication; land use change and removal of wetlands