Lewin's Field Theory The formula states that behavior is a function of the person and his or her environment
B is behavior
P is Person
E is the environment.
B stands for the individual's overt, publicly observable behavior. For Lewin, every psychologically interesting behavior is social behavior, in that such behavior is always in some way directed toward another person.
P stands for all the causal factors that reside within the individual person -- all the individual's mental (cognitive, emotional, and motivational) states, as well as traits, attitudes, and other behavioral dispositions.
And E stands for all the causal factors that reside in the world outside the individual, including aspects of the physical ecology (e.g., temperature, humidity, altitude, etc.) and the sociocultural ecology (e.g., the presence and behavior of other people, constraints imposed by social structures, social roles, situational demands and expectations, social incentives, etc. Because every behavior is social behavior, for Lewin what really counts in the environment are the social aspects of the situation -- the behavior of other people, as well as wider social and cultural forces.
• Good agreement on what is attractive
• Learned at an early age
• cultural stereotype: beauty = good
• curious, complex, perceptive, confident,
assertive, happy, active, amiable, candid,
outspoken, flexible, internal control, desirable
personality, occupational status, marital
competence, social & professional success,
less likely to be judged maladjusted
• prefer: working, dating, marriage, less guilty,
better written work, counselor, get help, adopt
• teacher evaluations of kids' play behavior
• more liking for attractive dates-computer dance
• Heavy: ugly, sloppy, sad, dirty, slow,
• Muscular: healthy, brave, attractive,
many friends, not kind, not intelligent
• Thin: intelligent, neat, fearful, avg. on
Positive, Neutral, or Negative Word (Honey,
Thanks; vs. Maybe, Oh; vs. Brute, Terrible)
• Said with Positive, Neutral, Negative Voice
• Voice more important than content
• Positive,Neutral, Negative Face with Pos,
Neutral, Negative, Voice
• Face More Important Than Voice
• Impact on Perceived Message 55% facial,
38% vocal, 7% words
Perception of "Who am I?"
• physical (tall, female)
• skills & competencies (smart, athletic)
• psychological (beliefs, shy, energetic)
• social (friendly, popular)
• groups (club, church, family, family
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"