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Middle and late childhood

6-10,11 years


slow and consistent


2 - 3 inches per year


5 - 7 pounds per year

skeletal muscles

grow and ossify


muscle mass increases as baby fat decreases


double their strength by heredity and exercise, boys are usually stronger than girls


total brain volume stabilizes by the end of middle and late childhood, but changes in various structures and regions of the brain continue to occur

prefrontal cortex

continue to increase in the MLC, less diffusion and more focal activation

prefrontal cortex

improved attention, reasoning and cognitive control, inhibiting motor actions, reducing interfering thoughts, cognitive flexible in switching between competing choices

cerebral cortex

thickness, improvements in language like reading

brain areas

synaptic pruning - not used - looses connections
used - increases connections

Motor development

myelination of the CNS is reflected in the improvement of fine motor skills during MLC, coordinated - swimming, bicycle riding , skipping, climbing, running.

girls outperform boys in motor skills


61% of 9-13 year olds do not participate in organized PE
23% do not engage in any free time PE

Accidents and Injuries

motor vehicle Accidents are the leading cause of death and injury In MLC


second leading cause of death in 5-14 yrs. 1/330 children develop cancer before 19
Leukemia - most common cancer- abundance of abnormal white blood cells

Cardiovascular diseases

high B/P in latino children (25%)
least in Asian american children (14%)


95th percentile - overweight
85th percentile- risk for being overweight (15% - 30%)
overweight in childhood - 11-30 times more likely to be obese in adolescence
girls are more likely to be obese than boys
develop hip and lung problems, high BP, Cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, low self-esteem, depression, peer relations

causes for obesity

away-from-home consumption, increase in total calories from salty snacks, soft drinks, and pizza, decrease in calories from low fat drinks and beef/pork
TV watching and ate fewer meals with family
inadequate exercise

preventing overweight

monitoring, healthy eating habits, family meals, not keeping unhealthy and sweetened foods at home

Piaget's concrete operational stage

ages 7 to 11; childrens ability to classify things into different sets and consider their interrelationships. children can perform concrete operations and reason logically...proposed that various aspects of a stage should merge together. education and culture exert stronger influences than he believed.


(psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity, mental actions that are reversible

concrete operations

mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations, understanding of conservation; understanding of identity; understanding of serial ordering, tangible objects


arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume ( such as length)


(logic and mathematics) a relation between three elements such that if it holds between the first and second and it also holds between the second and third it must necessarily hold between the first and third, The ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions., the ability to recognize relations among elements in a serial order (for example, if A > B and B > C, then A > C).

long-term memory

-a relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time


conscious, intentional and controllable plans people use to improve performance


an important strategy that involves engaging in more extensive processing of information

fuzzy trace theory

two types of memory representations also contribute to memory...verbatim memory trace and gist


the manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions

critical thinking

the process of thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating evidence.

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