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31 terms

middle and late childhood - physical and cognitive development

STUDY
PLAY
Middle and late childhood
6-10,11 years
growth
slow and consistent
height
2 - 3 inches per year
weight
5 - 7 pounds per year
skeletal muscles
grow and ossify
muscle
muscle mass increases as baby fat decreases
strength
double their strength by heredity and exercise, boys are usually stronger than girls
Brain
total brain volume stabilizes by the end of middle and late childhood, but changes in various structures and regions of the brain continue to occur
prefrontal cortex
continue to increase in the MLC, less diffusion and more focal activation
prefrontal cortex
improved attention, reasoning and cognitive control, inhibiting motor actions, reducing interfering thoughts, cognitive flexible in switching between competing choices
cerebral cortex
thickness, improvements in language like reading
brain areas
synaptic pruning - not used - looses connections
used - increases connections
Motor development
myelination of the CNS is reflected in the improvement of fine motor skills during MLC, coordinated - swimming, bicycle riding , skipping, climbing, running.

girls outperform boys in motor skills
Exercise
61% of 9-13 year olds do not participate in organized PE
23% do not engage in any free time PE
Accidents and Injuries
motor vehicle Accidents are the leading cause of death and injury In MLC
Cancer
second leading cause of death in 5-14 yrs. 1/330 children develop cancer before 19
Leukemia - most common cancer- abundance of abnormal white blood cells
Cardiovascular diseases
high B/P in latino children (25%)
least in Asian american children (14%)
Overweight
95th percentile - overweight
85th percentile- risk for being overweight (15% - 30%)
overweight in childhood - 11-30 times more likely to be obese in adolescence
girls are more likely to be obese than boys
develop hip and lung problems, high BP, Cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, low self-esteem, depression, peer relations
causes for obesity
away-from-home consumption, increase in total calories from salty snacks, soft drinks, and pizza, decrease in calories from low fat drinks and beef/pork
TV watching and ate fewer meals with family
inadequate exercise
preventing overweight
monitoring, healthy eating habits, family meals, not keeping unhealthy and sweetened foods at home
Piaget's concrete operational stage
ages 7 to 11; childrens ability to classify things into different sets and consider their interrelationships. children can perform concrete operations and reason logically...proposed that various aspects of a stage should merge together. education and culture exert stronger influences than he believed.
operation
(psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity, mental actions that are reversible
concrete operations
mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations, understanding of conservation; understanding of identity; understanding of serial ordering, tangible objects
seriation
arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume ( such as length)
transitivity
(logic and mathematics) a relation between three elements such that if it holds between the first and second and it also holds between the second and third it must necessarily hold between the first and third, The ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions., the ability to recognize relations among elements in a serial order (for example, if A > B and B > C, then A > C).
long-term memory
-a relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time
strategies
conscious, intentional and controllable plans people use to improve performance
elaboration
an important strategy that involves engaging in more extensive processing of information
fuzzy trace theory
two types of memory representations also contribute to memory...verbatim memory trace and gist
thinking
the manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions
critical thinking
the process of thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating evidence.