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50 terms

HIstory Exam Key terms

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Annul
cancel or withdraw
Patron
person who provides financial support for the arts
Humanism
intellectual movement at the heart of Italian Renassance that focused on wordly subjects rather then or religious issues
caravel
improved type of sailing in the 1400's
Encomienda
right the Spanish goverment granted to its AMerican colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans
Mestizo
person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and European descent
Inflation
economic cylce that involves a rapid rice in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available
Limited monarchy
goverment in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power
Feudalism
loosely organized system of goverment in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
Perspective
artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect
Heliocentric
based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Recant
give up one's views or beliefs
Cartographer
mapmaker
Capitalism
economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit
Plantation
large estate run by an owner an overseer and worked by laborers who live there
Absolute monarch
ruler with complete authority over the goverment and lives of the people he or she governs
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Mercantilism
policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver
Alliance
formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
Gravity
force that tends to pull one mass or object to another
Predestination
idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation
Indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person's lifetime
Sepoy
Indian soilder in an army set up by the French or English East India company
Conquistador
name for Spanish explorers who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain in the 1500's and 1600's
Tariff
tax on imported goods
Divine RIght
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
Scientific Method
painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
Theocracy
goverment run by religious leaders
Astrolabe
instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars
Circumnavigate
travel all the way around the Earth
Creole
person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers
Viceroy
representative who ruled one of Spain's provinces in the Americas in the king's name; one who governed in INdia in the name of the British monarch
Habeas Corpus
States that no people can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Boers
Dutch farmers in Africa
Middle Passage
Voyage that took Africans to slavery in the Africans
Five Pillars to Islam
1) Believe in one God, 2) daily prayer, 3)Charity to the poor,
4) fasting, 5)the hajj
Magma Carta
the great charter, contained 2 basic ideas: the nobles had certain rights, monarchs most obey the law;
Protestant Reformation
movement that in the 1500's the reform unleashed forces that would shatter Christianity
Pilgrims
English settlers, landed at Plymouth MA, a band of English Puritans a Protestant group
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV issuded it in 1598, granted Huguenots religious toleration and let them fortify their own towns and cities
Habeas Corpus
affirmed principle that abolished excessive fines and cruel or unjust punishment, states that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Warm-water port
port that is free of ice all year, Both Peter and Catherine were determined to get this to improve Russian trade with west, Catherine the Great got one in the Black Sea
St. Petersburg
Thousands of serfs died while building this city, named after Peter the Great
Catholic Reformation
the leader was Pope Paul III, during 1530's- 1540's tried to role back protestant tide, end corruption within papacy itself, and tried to recieve the moral of the Church,
Crusades
Holy Wars
Atlantic Slave Trade
began in the 1500's , to fill the need for labor in Spain's American Empire
Thirty Years' War
war with both Political nd religious views, France winner, Hapsburg big losers, divided Germany into 360 states
Treaty of Paris
Treaty in 1763, officialy ended world-wide war, treaty ensured British dominance in North America,
Calvanists
Followers of John Calvin, stressed hard work, disipline, honesty and morality
Mongols
1200's conqured from China to Eastern Europe, ruled with absolute power, model for later Russia