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person who provides financial support for the arts


intellectual movement at the heart of Italian Renassance that focused on wordly subjects rather then or religious issues


improved type of sailing in the 1400's


right the Spanish goverment granted to its AMerican colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans


person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and European descent


economic cylce that involves a rapid rice in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available

Limited monarchy

goverment in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power


loosely organized system of goverment in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord


artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect


based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe


give up one's views or beliefs




economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit


large estate run by an owner an overseer and worked by laborers who live there

Absolute monarch

ruler with complete authority over the goverment and lives of the people he or she governs

Balance of Power

distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong


policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver


formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense


force that tends to pull one mass or object to another


idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation


In the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person's lifetime


Indian soilder in an army set up by the French or English East India company


name for Spanish explorers who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain in the 1500's and 1600's


tax on imported goods

Divine RIght

belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God

Scientific Method

painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis


goverment run by religious leaders


instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars


travel all the way around the Earth


person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers


representative who ruled one of Spain's provinces in the Americas in the king's name; one who governed in INdia in the name of the British monarch

Habeas Corpus

States that no people can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime


Dutch farmers in Africa

Middle Passage

Voyage that took Africans to slavery in the Africans

Five Pillars to Islam

1) Believe in one God, 2) daily prayer, 3)Charity to the poor,
4) fasting, 5)the hajj

Magma Carta

the great charter, contained 2 basic ideas: the nobles had certain rights, monarchs most obey the law;

Protestant Reformation

movement that in the 1500's the reform unleashed forces that would shatter Christianity


English settlers, landed at Plymouth MA, a band of English Puritans a Protestant group

Edict of Nantes

Henry IV issuded it in 1598, granted Huguenots religious toleration and let them fortify their own towns and cities

Habeas Corpus

affirmed principle that abolished excessive fines and cruel or unjust punishment, states that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

Warm-water port

port that is free of ice all year, Both Peter and Catherine were determined to get this to improve Russian trade with west, Catherine the Great got one in the Black Sea

St. Petersburg

Thousands of serfs died while building this city, named after Peter the Great

Catholic Reformation

the leader was Pope Paul III, during 1530's- 1540's tried to role back protestant tide, end corruption within papacy itself, and tried to recieve the moral of the Church,


Holy Wars

Atlantic Slave Trade

began in the 1500's , to fill the need for labor in Spain's American Empire

Thirty Years' War

war with both Political nd religious views, France winner, Hapsburg big losers, divided Germany into 360 states

Treaty of Paris

Treaty in 1763, officialy ended world-wide war, treaty ensured British dominance in North America,


Followers of John Calvin, stressed hard work, disipline, honesty and morality


1200's conqured from China to Eastern Europe, ruled with absolute power, model for later Russia

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