19 terms

Chapter 4 Sections 4-5

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Philosopher
They were unbelievers of the Greek Gods. Instead of using them to describe what happen, they used observations and reason to find causes. In Greek, it means "lovers of wisdom".
Logic
Greek philosophers studied this along with music and math. It is rational thinking.
Rhetoric
The art of skillful speaking. This skill was developed when Sophists thought success was far more important then morality. To further their careers, ambitious men used this and cleverness.
Socrates
He was an outspoken critic of the Sophists. He was an Athenian stonemason and philosopher. He was Plato's teacher. A method named after him is based on his decision to go out in a town square and talk to people instead of writing down in a book. Because of this, he was perceived as a threat in Ancient Greece. When he was 70, he was put on trial for corrupting youths and received the death penalty.
Plato
After the death of his teacher Socrates, he did not trust democracy and fled Athens. When he returned, he created a school where he taught and wrote about his own ideas. He fought for the importance of reason. In his book, he wrote about his rejection of Athenian democracy because it condemned Socrates and that the state should focus and provide for their students best interests. He divided his ideal community into three sections.
Aristotle
Plato's most famous student. He analyzed the different forms of government. He was also suspicious of democracy. He believed in pursuing the Golden mean. He left writings on politics, ethics, logic, biology, literature, and more. The first universities based their courses on his works.
Parthenon
A temple dedicated to Athena. The basic plan was a simple rectangle, y'all columns, and a gently sloped roof. It represents dignity and grace.
Tragedy
Plays that told stories of human suffering that usually ended in disaster. The purpose was to stir up and relieve the emotions of pity and fear.
Comedy
Humorous plays that mocked people or customs. It was meant to ridicule individuals of the day.
Herodotus
The "father of history" because of his in depth story telling and listing of names. He was always sure to note bias in his writings even though he showed favor ship of the Greeks over Persians.
Alexander the Great
Athens fell to the Macedonian army in 338 BC and lost their independence. Even though this was a tragedy, Greek culture proceeded to spread around the Mediterranean and the borders of Indian. The architect of the era is known as this. He was put into power at 20 and was able to subdue Persia and fought to go further into what is now Asia. He died at 32 of a fever.
Philip II
He lived in Thebes as a child and admired Greek culture. He hired Aristotle as a tutor for his son Alexander. After he conquered Greece, he dreamt of conquering Persia but was assassinated before he could.
Assassination
The murder of a public figure for political reasons.
Assimilate
To absorb. This happened to Greek culture after Alexander the Great's rule spread,
Alexandria
A city in Egypt. It had large markets and boasted the lighthouse Pharos and a museum.
Pythagoras
A Greek scholar that calculate the relationship between the sides of s right triangle.
Heliocentric
The idea of a sun centered solar system.
Archimedes
He applied principals of physics to make practical inventions. He mastered the first use of the lever and pulley.
Hippocrates
Greek physician that studied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures. His oath is attributed with setting ethical standards for doctors that is still somewhat applied today.