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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APWH Period 5 Short Answer Questions Ch. 16-17
Terms in this set (13)
What made the Atlantic Revolutions unique in world history?
- wars = global (not regional)
- events = connected (Thomas Jefferson = US Ambassador to France)
- "Democratic Revolution" shared set of common ideas (Enlightenment, liberty, equality, free trade, religious tolerance, populate sovereignty)
- immense global impact —> abolish slavery, expand voting rights, develop constitutions, secure equality of women, rise of nationalism and ideas of human equality
What was the significance of the American, French, Haitian, and Spanish American revolutions?
- help of French, colonists victories, 1781
- political participation expanded
- US Constitution of 1787 (Bill of Rights, checks and balances, federalism) → 1st sustained efforts to use ideas of Enlightenment
- elimination of noble and clerical privileges
- Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
- Reorganization of the Church
- The Constitution of 1791
- Haiti = marked by class/race divisions, external opposition, authorities politics, and "independence debt"
- inspired other slave rebellions and the abolitionist movements
- increased slavery in Cuba as sugar production rose and in the U.S. with Napoleon selling the Louisiana Purchase
—Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin required the support of the people → nativism, Americanos versus those born in Spain/Portugal
- Women, Native Americans, slaves, and the lower classes gained little from independence
- Bolivar failed to unite all the Spanish colonies because of deeply rooted regional identities
What were the major effects of the Atlantic Revolutions?
Abolition of Slavery
- wide support among middle & working class → pamphlets, petitions, lawsuits, boycotts, and slave narratives
- most popular in Britain → patrolled the Atlantic, freed slaves in Freetown, W. Africa
- lives of freed slaves not improve → sharecropping and Jim Crow laws
- independence movements fought in the name of nations
- "civic nationalism" that encouraged assimilation (US) but racism (Nazi Germany)
- "imagined communities"
- growing middle classes of industrializing societies → more women found education and increase freedom from house
- 1st women's right's conference
- issue of suffrage
- Florence Nightingale → nursing
- opposition → viewed as selfish and willing to sacrifice family/nation for individual goals
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Europe and Great Britain?
- small & highly competitive states favored innovation
- monarchs encouraged commoners through alliance w/ merchants for $
- merchants & innovators gained freedom from state control and high social status
- ability to draw from the world's resources
- highly commercialized b/c of imperial possessions in Caribbean, N. America, & India
- agricultural innovations
- increased food productions & low food prices → increase ppl. & freed up labor for industrial workers
- gov. encouraged innovation, religious tolerance, new businesses that forbid workers union, patent laws, etc.
- science → observation experiment, precise measurements
- British Royal Society → useful knowledge
- geography → coal & iron supplies, island protected
What social structure emerged in Great Britian during the Industrial Revolution?
1st Industrial Society
- landed aristocrats lost political clout → urban wealth = more important
- titled nobility retained social prestige and wealth
- benefited the most
- right to vote from middle class men
- "respectability" → individual responsibility, poverty = self-imposed
- "ideology of domesticity" → being a lady = housemaking
- 70% of the population = benefited the least
- urbanization = bad sanitation, epidemics, pollution
- life expectancy goes down (39.5 yrs.)
- little context between rich & poor
- factories = long hours, low wages, constant supervision, strict rules, etc.
- gendered hierarchy of labor emerged
What social movements arose in response to the Undustrial Revolution?
- joined labor unions → better wages & working conditions
- movements for middle class men to vote
- Robert Owen → spread socialist ideas
- Labour Party → moderate "social democracy"
- Karl Marx → working proletariat would overthrow wealthy bourgeoisie → classless society
- rise of sizable middle class, capitalist reforms (abolished child labor & regulated factories), growing nationalism → prevented Marx's revolution in W. Europe
How did industrialization develop in the United Sates, Russia, and Latin America?
- textile factories (1820's) → World' s leading industrial power in 1914
- gov. = not heavily involved
- pioneered tech of mass production → interchangeable parts, assembly line
- "culture of consumption"
- socialism did NOT stick → "un-American" and workers had higher living standards and sharp racial divides (prevented unity)
- absolute monarchy → state initiated change
- revolution = focused on heavy industry + railroads → fueled by foreign investment
- millions flock to new centers of development
- absence of political parties → large scale strikes
- 1905 revolution = constitution
- 1917 revolution = radical socialist group seizes power
- no full revolution → divided
- military dictatorships
- economics of dependence → no investment in new tech, heavy reliance on others
- 90% = poverty → nobody to buy goods
- 2nd half of 19th century = more connected globally → more exports
Analyze the political and economic changes and continuities in Russia between 1750-1900.
Legacy of Enlightenment
- The changes in Russia between 1750 and 1900 are largely built off of ideas from the Enlightenment. The legacy of the Enlightenment included a belief in progress and a more secular outlook. The was a rise of individualism, new philosophies, and different views of government (Hobbes = strong authority, Locke = free, equal). The revolution s that followed the Enlightenment expanded on these ideas and used them as a base for developing constitutions.
The political and economic changes and continuities in Russia between 1750-1900 include the continuation fo the monarchy, large-scale strikes, and revolutions.
- growing middle class → objected tsar Russia, but dependent
- no political parties → large-scale strikes
- revolution focus on railroads + heavy industry → fueled by foreign investment
- millions flocked to new centers of industrial development
- absolute monarchy →state = control over individuals and society
- freeing of the serfs (incompatible w/ modern civilization) → 1861
The effects of the Industrial Revolution on Russia included the:
- 1905 revolution → constitution, changed rules
- Russian Revolution of 1917 → socialist political party seized power (built off of Karl Marx's ideas)
The the political and economic changes and continuities in Russia between 1750-1900 include the continuation fo the monarchy, large-scale strikes, and led to revolutions.
Recommended textbook explanations
HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Modern America
Alan Taylor, Emma J. Lapsansky-Werner, Peter B. Levy, Randy Roberts
Creating America: 1877 to the 21st Century
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