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AP Human Geography Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and Processes
Terms in this set (104)
What is a civilization?
A culture with complex social, economic, & governmental systems.
What is a culture?
All of the features and traits of someone's way of life.
What is culture shock?
The discomfort people feel when they come into contact with an unfamiliar culture.
What is enculturation?
A process by which a person learns the culture of his/hers society; usually from parent to child.
What is material culture?
The things that are created by the members of a society.
What is subculture?
A group within a culture that holds to beliefs & behaviors that are different than that of the mainstream culture.
What is diffusion?
A process by which cultural traits & patterns spread from one society to another.
What is cultural lag?
A process happening when certain parts of a culture don't keep up with the changes in the rest of the culture.
What is acculturation?
The process when two cultures interact and blend together.
What is multiculturalism?
The situation in a society that includes many different, distinct cultures.
What is assimilation?
The process by which people give up all the ways of their culture and become part of a different culture.
What is relativism?
The idea that culture should not be judged by the rules of another.
What is non-material culture?
The values, beliefs, & behaviors of a society.
What are cultural traits?
Characteristics or aspects of a culture.
What is ethnocentrism?
The attitude that one culture is superior to all others.
What is pop culture?
The aspects of current culture that make up its arts and entertainment.
What are characteristics of folk culture?
traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas.
- Isolated; stays near hearth
- Diffused through relocation
- Found in a few (maybe one) place
- Usually rural or small populations
- Tends to be anonymous
- Resistant to change
What are characteristics of pop culture?
found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
- large and widespread
- diffused through globalization
- found in different populations
- usually in urban areas
- has a specific history
- can change easily and rapidly sometimes
What is the difference between a habit and a custom?
A habit is a repetitive act that an individual performs. A custom is a repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group.
Where does culture originate?
Contrast hearth characteristics between folk and pop culture.
- Tends to be rural areas
- Does not have an exact origin
- Tends to be isolated to a specific group of ppl
- Tends to be urban areas
- Can be traced back to a specific person
- Often times pop ideas begin as folk ideas (jeans, country music, etc.)
What type of diffusion does folk culture follow?
ex) country music
What type of diffusion does pop culture follow?
What are characteristics of pop culture distribution?
Pop culture is widespread and multinational with little regard for physical factors. Distribution influenced by ability of ppl to access material.
What is a custom?
an activity that a group of ppl do
What is a habit?
an activity that a single person does
Describe the isolation and influence of the environment and its role in folk culture.
environment influences housing, food, and clothing.
- housing b/c of the access to different materials and depending on terrain. ex) teepees in Native American midwest tribes bc they followed the buffalo.
- Clothing b/c of weather Ex) Inuits in Alaska wear warm clothing while Cherokees in GA wear loose clothing.
- Food b/c of terroir
What is terroir?
impacts food and the environment have on each other
Describe the difference between folk and pop songs.
- Folk: primarily used to tell a story or a history of a ppl or place
- Pop: made to be sold and performed for large groups of ppl
Material culture includes the 3 most important necessities to life which are?
What is the difference between material culture and leisure culture?
Material- survival behaviors (eating, sleeping, etc.)
Leisure- recreational behaviors (sports, music, art, etc.)
Describe the role of folk and pop culture and their role in the diffusion of different sports.
Soccer: origin in England as a folk idea within villages during 1000s; began to diffuse in 1800s and eventually became a part of pop culture (World Cup and Olympics)
What is the difference between pop and folk clothing?
Pop: tends to reflect occupation and/or income
Folk: tends to serve a purpose; usually environmental or religious
What is a taboo and what are some examples of food taboos?
not eating particular plants or animals that are thought to embody negative forces in the environment; a behavioral restriction imposed by social custom.
- Ancient Hebrews: prohibited from eating animals that do not chew their cud or have cloven feet; fish without fins or scales. Ancient taboos have evolved into kosher laws that some Jews abide by today
- Muslim: no pork; pigs would compete with humans for resources w/o doing anything to benefit humans
- Hindu: no cattle b/c they need cattle to plow so they don't want to deplete populations
Describe popular food culture.
Influenced more by cultural values than by environmental features (Pepsi popular during USSR but when USSR broke up, Pepsi was associated w/ communism so Russians switched to Coke). Preferences vary from country to country or region to region (Pepsi vs Coke).
Wine: high in CA (where grapes are) and low in Upper MW (where beer is)
South prefer pork rinds (where pigs are) while north prefers corn and potatoes b/c that's what's grown.
Utah: low alcohol consumption b/c LDS church abstains from alcohol
Describe the environmental influences on folk housing.
Wet/Snowy Climates: pitched roof to facilitate runoff and reduce weight of accumulated snow
Temperate Climates: windows may face south to take advantage of Sun's heat and light
Hot Climates: window openings may be smaller to protect interior from full heat of sun
Wood: used if available; pioneers built log cabins; modern world uses precut lumber
Brick: hot, dry climates where not many trees are (SW U.S.)
What are the 3 Major hearths of folk house forms in the US?
- Middle Atlantic: "I" house. 2 stories, 1 room deep, 2 rooms wide. MA migrants carried house type W to Ohio River Valley and SW to Appalachian trails
- Lower Chesapeake/ Tidewater: one story, steep roof, chimneys at either end. Migrants spread these houses from Chesapeake Bay/ Tidewater to SE coast
- New England: box shaped w/ central hall; found in Great Lakes region as far west as Wisconsin b/c those areas were settled by New Englanders
How does pop culture diffuse?
electronic and social media
What is the world's most important electronic media format?
What is the most popular leisure activity in the world?
Diffusion of Internet and pace compared to TV.
Internet is much faster than TV. Internet takes a decade to become widespread while TV takes a generation
Describe the diffusion of social media.
Even faster than the Internet. YouTube is slower than Facebook and Twitter. As programs become easier to use, social media diffuses faster
How does electronic media affect folk culture?
- Increased connection with popular culture through modern media makes maintaining centuries-old practices difficult
- external threat: most content originates in a handful of countries
- internal threat: latest forms of social media enable ppl in developing countries to originate the content themselves
What are the three MDCs that dominate TV industry?
How do developing countries view TV?
View the control of TV by a handful of MDCS (esp USA) as a new method if economic and cultural imperialism.
Do LDCs or MDCs control media?
How did social media/technology affect governments in Egypt, Libya and other Southwest Asian and North African countries?
popular uprisings against undemocratic gov'ts in said sountres relied on individuals sending info through electronic and social media
Describe the Amish culture.
- Don't use mechanical or electrical power
- Migrated to U.S. from Europe in two waves
- Horse and buggy
- Hand tools for farming
- Live mostly in North East and Upper Midwest U.S.
Describe India's issues with bride dowries.
Global diffusion on popular social customs has increased the demand of dowries. Originally, dowries were a gift from the groom's family to the bride's family, but the roles have been reversed. The size of dowries has also increased and if a woman's family cannot pay her dowry, she can be kicked out onto the street by her husband and not be accepted by her family.
What are two ways the diffusion of popular customs can adversely impact the environment?
- pollution of landscape
- depletion of scarce natural resources
What is a uniform landscape and how can the diffusion of pop culture cause a uniform landscape?
Uniform Landscape/ Placelessness: when you can't tell where you are b/c everything looks the same
Brands want you to be able to recognize them no matter where you are (product recognition) so they put their logo up everywhere. Ex) fast-food chains
Describe pop culture and level of waste.
High levels of waste (solids, liquids, and gases). With more ppl adopting popular customs worldwide, this problem grows
Can Folk Culture cause environmental damage? If so, how?
- burning grasslands for planting and hunting
- cutting down forests
What is recycling and how does it work?
The separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material.
Involves two main series of activities:
1) Pick-up and processing
- Curbside programs
- drop-off centers
- buy-back centers
- deposit programs
Describe the Germanic Branch of the Indo-European language family.
- Divided into Northern and Western Germanic
- North: Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic
- West: German, Dutch, Frisian, English
- Wester Germanic further divided into high and low German
- Based on elevation where lang is spoken
- High German basis for modern German
- Dutch, Frisian, and Afrikaans are Low German
Describe the Indo-Iranian Branch of the Indo-European language family.
- Divided into eastern and western
- Eastern called Indic and common throughout India
- Hindi most common; dozens of others; Urdu similar to Hindi but with Arabic letters
- Western also called Iranian and is common in Iran and surrounding countries
- Farsi most common; includes several others; Arabic alphabet common
Describe the Balto-Slavic Branch of the Indo-European language family.
- Divided into East, West, and South Groups
- E: also called Baltic; most common branch; includes Russian, Ukrainian, nad Belarusian
- W: also called Slavic; Polish, Czech, and Slovak
- S: found throughout Balkans; each country uses a dialect; Roman and Cyrillic alphabet common; Arabic alphabet becoming common
- These languages caused WWI allies (Germany and Austria) to form b/c of similarities in lang
Describe the Romance Branch of the Indo-European language family.
- Derives from lang of Romans (Latin). The branch spread b/c of the countries Rome took over
- French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian
- All include regional variations (esp Italian)
- Countries they are spoken in are separated by physical, political, and cultural boundaries
Describe the diffusion of English.
- Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and eventually Vikings invade GB and bring their lang
- Normans invade from France, try to replace English with French
- Modern English uses blend of English and French
- As British begin to colonize world, regional dialects develop
Describe the diffusion of Latin.
- As Rome conquered more and more lands, regional variations also grew
- Vulgar Latin: used for daily conversation, less officious or proper
- When WRE collapsed, regions and provinces were separated from each other giving rise to distinct langs
What is Proto-Indo-European?
B/c it would be so ancient, no lang or alphabet linking various branches of Indo-European can be found. The existence of a single common ancestral language. (cannot be proved with certainty )
What is the Nomadic Warrior Theory?
Kurgans migrate from C Asia into and throughout Europe
What is the Sedentary farmer theory?
ppl in Anatolia migrate through Asia and Europe
What is a dialect?
a regional variation of a language; spelling, pronunciation, and words will differ; usually different dialects can understand each other
What is an isogloss?
the boundary of a dialect; where a dialect ends
What is standard language?
dialect taught and used for public speaking; recieved pronunciation
What is creolized language?
when two languages are blended together to form a new one
What are the three criteria for speaking the same language? What are some problems with these criteria?
1) Mutual Intelligibility
- Problem: sometimes speakers cannot understand other dialect
2) Use same written standard of lang
- Problem: some ppl can't use standard lang very well
3) National or ethnic identity
- Problem: ppl don't want to be associated w/ another group so they call their lang a different name even tho its still the same lang
Basically dialects have to be mutually comprehensible
What are characteristics of a southern U.S. dialect?
- make one syllable words into 2
- make two syllable words into one
- drod "g" in -ing sounds "diggin"
What are characteristics of a northern U.S. dialect?
- soft r sound
- sharp vowel sounds
- d in place of t sound
What are characteristics of a midwestern U.S. dialect?
- 'da' in place of 'the'
- long vowels
- influenced by Canadian and French
Why are western U.S. accents less noticable and distinct?
B/c its a "random area"
How does British English pronunciation differ from American English pronunciation?
- British have sharper vowels: esp 'a'
- British tend not to use contractions
- Condense words; secret'ry vs secretary
- Words that end in -ile or -ization
- British words tend to annunciate the t and r sound
How does British English spelling differ from American English spelling?
- Re at the end; litre vs liter
- U after o; colour vs color
- C in place of s; defense vs defence
- S in place of z; realise vs realize
What is an isolated language?
a language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family (Basque and Iceland)
How has the diffusion or languages changed over time?
Prior to 90s, ppl had to move to spread langs. Now, langs can spread through tech
What is an extinct language?
those that were once used but no longer are (Native American langs, Latin, Hebrew was but is now used in Israel)
Know how languages are preserved and why.
What is a lingua franca?
A language of international communication
What are Pidgin languages?
used when 2 ppl do not speak same lang; basic grammar (Franglais, Spanglish, Denglish)
What are universalizing religions?
attempt to be global, to appeal to all ppl, wherever they may live in the world, not to those of one culture or location (Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism)
What are ethnic religions?
appeal primarily to one group of ppl living in one place (Hinduism, Chinese-Traditional, Asian Primal-Indigenous, and African traditional religions)
What is atheism?
Belief that there is no god.
What is agnoticism?
belief that nothing can be known about whether God exists
What is deitism?
Belief that God exists but does not care about us
What is the difference between a religion branch, denomination, and sect?
Branch: large and fundamental division within a religion
Denomination: division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Sect: relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
What are the three major branches of Christianity and what is their distribution across Europe and the Western Hemisphere?
Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox
- Catholic in SW and E
- Protestant in NW
- Orthodox in E and SE
- Catholic: 90% in Latin America; 40% in NA (SW & NE)
- Protestant: 28% of U.S.
Where is Islam concentrated?
Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia
What are the two branches of Islam and where are they concentrated?
- Sunni: 83%; SW Asia and N Africa
- Shiite (Shia): 16%; Iran, Pakistan, and Iraq
Muslim pop in Europe and NA has increased rapidly in recent years b/c of immigration
Where is Buddhism concentrated?
E and SE Asia
What are the three branches of Buddhism and where are they concentrated?
- Mahayana: 56%; China, Japan, and Korea
- Theravada: 38%; Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
- Vajrayana: 6%; Tibet and Mongolia
Why is it difficult to know how many Buddhists there are?
only a few ppl participate in Buddhist institutions
- concentrated in India; some in Bangladesh and Nepal
- have many gods but only worship one
- can be part of more than one religion
Describe Chinese Traditional.
- Combination of Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism, and other traditional Chinese practices
- Confucianism: good behavior and public service
- Taoism: mystical and magical aspects of life
Describe Primal-Indigenous religions.
- SE Asia and S Pacific Islands
- Wide spectrum of religions
- not really documented; verbal lineage
What is Shamanism?
belief that invisible forces or spirits affect the lives of the living
What is Paganism?
refers to ancient ppls who had multiple gods
- North Korea
- Created by Kim II Sung
- more of a gov't ideology/philosophy rather than a religion
What is animism?
belief that inanimate objects or natural events have discrete spirits and a natural life
What is spiritism?
belief that human personality continues to exist after death and can communicate w/ agency of a medium or psychic
- U.S. and Israel
- 1st recorded monotheistic religion
- Christianity and Islam can find some roots in Judaism
What does monotheistic mean?
Belief in one God
What does polytheistic mean?
Belief in many gods
How does religion affect culture?
- can affect architecture (Mosques face Mecca)
- clothing (Muslim women wear conservative clothes)
- "cultural norm"
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