How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

89 terms

Lymphatic System

STUDY
PLAY
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV destroys T-cells. T-cells are white blood cells that signal other cells to begin an immune response
Active Immunity
Immunity provided by an encounter with an antigen; provides immunologic memory
Antibody-Mediated Immunity
The production of antibodies by B cells in response to an antigen
Antigen (Ag)
Any substance-including toxins, foreign proteins, or bacteria-that, when introduced to the body, is recognized as foreign and activates the immune system
Antigen-Binding Site
The site on an immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor molecule that binds specific antigen
Antigen Presentation
The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell
Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs)
Cells that capture and present peptides to T lymphocytes
Autografts
Tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same person
Autoimmune Disease
A disorder in which the immune system attacks the body's own Molecules
B Cells/B Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes that oversee humoral immunity; their descendants differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells
Cell-Mediated Immunity
Form of acquired immunity; results from activation of T lymphocytes that were previously sensitized to a specific antigen
Chemotaxis
Chemical attraction causing neutrophil to infected area of tissue
Clone
Descendants of a single cell
Complement
A group of plasma proteins that normally circulate in inactive forms; when activated by complement fixation, causes lysis of foreign cells and enhances phagocytosis and inflammation
Constant (C) Region
Is nearly the same in all antibodies of the same class and is responsible for the type of antigen-antibody reaction that occurs
Cortex
The outer surface layer of an organ
Cytokines
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Cytoxic (Killer) T Cells
Effector T cell that directly kills foreign cells
Diabetes Mellitus
A disease caused by deficient insulin release or inadequate responsiveness to insulin, leading to instability of the body cells to use carbohydrates at a normal rate
Diapedesis
The passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls into the tissues
Edema
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in body parts or tissues; causes swelling
Efferent Lymphatic Vessels
Vessel in which lymph and lymphocytes leave a lymph node en route to the blood
Fever
A rise of body temperature above the normal. It is caused by cytokines produced in response to infection
Follicles
Colloid-containing structure in the thyroid gland
Germinal Centers
Area of the lymph nodes within secondary follicles and an area where B cells proliferate, undergo somatic hypermutation and die, causing the node to swell during infection
Hapten (Incomplete Antigen)
Small particle that triggers an immune response only when combining with one of our own proteins
Helper T Cells
The type of T lymphocyte that orchestrates cellular immunity by direct contact with other immune cells and by releasing chemicals called lymphokines; also helps to mediate the humoral response by interacting with B cells.
Adaptive (Specific) Defense System
Protect against specific pathogens, involves lymphocytes
Afferent Lymphatic Vessels
Vessels that bring lymph draining from connective tissue into a lymph node en route to the blood
Agglutination
Clumping of (Foreign) cells, induced by cross-linking of antigen-anti-body complexes
Hilum
A depressed area where vessels enter and leave an organ
Histamine
A substance that causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
Humoral Immunity
Specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
Immune Response
Antigen-specific defenses mounted by activated lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
Immune System
A system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
Immunity
The ability of the body to resist many agents (Both living and nonliving) that can cause disease; resistance to disease
Immunocomptent
The ability of the body's immune cells to recognize (By binding) specific antigens; reflects the presence of plasma membrane-bound receptors
Immunodeficiencies
Any congenital or acquired condition that causes immune cells, phagocytes or compliment, to behave abnormally
Immunoglobulins (Igs)
A protein molecule, released by plasma cells, that mediates humoral immunity; an antibody
Immunological Memory
The capacity of the immune system to make quicker and stronger adaptive immune responses to successive encounters with an antigen. Immunological memory is specific for a particular antigen and is long-lived
Inflammatory Response
A line of defense triggered by penetration of the skin or mucous membranes, in which small blood vessels in the vicinity of an injury dilate and become leakier, enhancing the inflitration of leukocytes; may also be widespread in the body
Innate (Nonspecific) Defense System
Consisting of first line of defense (barriers and membranes)
Interferon
A protein released by infected cells, usually in response to the entry of a virus, that has the property of inhibiting virus replication by attaching to uninfected cells which stimulates the uninfected cell to synthesize another antiviral protein that inhibits viral replication
Isografts
Grafts between identical twins
Kinins
Group of polypeptides that dilate arterioles, increase vascular permeability, and induce pain
Lymph
The watery fluid in the lymph vessels collected from the tissue spaces
Lymph Capillaries
Small, thin walled tubes that collect lymph from interstitial fluid are called
Lymph Nodes
A mass of lymphatic tissue
Lymphatic Collecting Vessels
These receive lymph from lymphatic capillaries, contain more valves than veins, superficial and deep, pass through lymph nodes where it is monitored and cleared of pathogens and cancer cells
Lymphatic System
A system of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs and tissues
Lymphatic Vessels
Located deeper within the tissues that has lymph flowing to them from the lymphatic capillaries
Lymphatics
A network of lymphatic vessels
Lymphocytes
Agranular white blood cells formed in the bone marrow that mature in the lymphoid tissue
Lymphoid Organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland
Lysozyme
An enzyme found in sweat, saliva, and tears that is capable of destroying certain kinds of bacteria
Macrophages
A phagocytic cell particularly abundant in lymphatic and connective tissues; important as an antigen-presenter to T cells and B cells in the immune response
Medulla
The central portion of certain organs
Membrane Attack Complexes (MAC)
The complex of terminal complement components that forms a pore in the membrane of the target cell, damaging the membrane and leading to cell lysis
Allergies (Hypersensitivities)
Overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen
Allografts
Tissue taken from an unrelated person
Antibodies
A specialized substance produced by the body that can provide immunity against a specific antigen
Memory Cells
Member of T cell and B cell clones that provides for immunologic memory
Monoclonal Antibodies
Pure preparations of identical antibodies that exhibit speficity for a single antigen
Mucosa-Associated Lymph Tissue (MALT)
Small masses of lymph tissue located in: Respiratory tract, digestive tract
Natural Killer (NK) Cells
A specialized lymphocyte with some characteristics of a T cell. Recognize non-antigenic chemical changes on virally infected cells and can attack them directly
Neutralization
Blockage of the harmful effects of bacterial exotoxins or viruses by the binding of antibodies to their functional sites
Passive Immunity
Short-lived immunity resulting from the introduction of "borrowed antibodies" obtained from an immune animal or human donor; immunological memory is not established
Pathogens
Disease-causing microorganism Ex. bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.
Peyer's Patches
Found in the wall of the small intestine - Resemble tonsils in structure - Capture and destroy bacteria in the intestine
Phagocytes
A cell capable of engulfing and digesting particles or cells harmful to the body
Plasma Cells
Member of a B cell clone; specialized to produce and release antibodies
Positive Chemotaxis
Movement toward a chemical stimulus
Precipitation
Formation of insoluble complexes that settle out of solution
Primary Humoral Resonse
...
Pyrogens
An agent or chemical substance that induces fever
Regulatory T Cells
- Release chemicals to suppress the activity of T and B cells - Stop the immune response to prevent uncontrolled activity
Right Lymphatic Duct
Receives lymph from the right arm and right side of the head and thorax
Secondary Humoral Responses
Memory cells once again encounter same bacteria, antibody level peaks 2 to 3 days after response
Self Tolerance
Tolerance by the body's immune system to its own cells and tissues
Self-Antigens
A term used to describe all the normal constituents of the body to which the immune system would respond were it not for the mechanisms of tolerance that destroy or inactivate self-reactive B and T cells
Sinuses
A dilated channel for passage of blood or lymph
Spleen
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system; it produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.
T Cells/T Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes the mediate cellular immunity; include helper, killer, supressor, and memory cells
Thoracic Duct
Large LEFT lymph vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm
Thymus
An endocrine gland active in the immune response
Tonsils
A ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx. In an ideal position (1) to destroy bacteria (which are present in large numbers in the intestine), thereby preventing these pathogens from breaching the intestinal wall, and (2) to generate many "memory" lymphocytes for long-term immunity
Vaccines
Artificial way of tricking the immune system into making anitbodies
Variable (V) Region
Amino-terminal portion of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor chains that are highly variable and responsible for the antigenic specificity of these molecules
Xenografts
Tissue taken from a different animal species