1) Scientific Method
- The scientific method assumes causal relationships between events (cause and effects) and involves developing theories, deducing hypotheses, gathering data, and revising theories.
- A method of procedure consisting of systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
2) Inductive Reasoning
- the conclusion contains more information than the premises from which it's based. it is uncertain. they are evaluated based on whether they are strong or weak.
- example: John was sick when I saw him. The next day I got sick. John made me sick.
- Theories are inductive, but must allow for deductive reasoning. You have a set of premises, but move beyond them.
3) Deductive Reasoning
- a logical process in which the conclusion does not contain more information than the premise from which it's based. They are evaluated in terms of their validity, which means it follows deductive logic, and soundness, which means the premises are true and the argument is valid.
- example: all apples are fruits. The Granny smith is an apple. The Granny smith is a fruit.
- Hypothesis are testable predictions that are deduced from an induction.