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Terms in this set (52)
infection is the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be unapparent or the result of local cellular injury caused by competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response.
anything disease causing.
normal bacteria on body
how likely that bacteria is going to cause an infection in your body.
sign of infection. aseptic means no infection.
studying the spread of infection and disease. (CDC)
Nature of infection?
infection is the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting in disease.
Entry and multiplication or organisms result in
colonization occurs when
a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection.
Communicable disease is the infectious process transmitted from
one person to another.
who is more susceptible to infection?
young children and elderly patients.
if pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms, the infection is
if clinical signs and symptoms are not present, the illness is termed
what is the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infection?
hand washing. (hand hygiene)
having an impaired immune system.
the ability to produce disease.
aerobic bacteria requires:
oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease.
anaerobic bacteria thrive where:
little or no free oxygen is available.
prevention of growth and reproduction of bacteria.
destructive to bacteria
a patient is admitted to a medical unit for a home acquired pressure ulcer. the patient has alzheimers disease and has been incontinent of urine. the nurse inserts a foley catheter. you will identify a link in the infection chain as....
a foley catheter bag.
four stages of the infection process:
incubation period: (you don't realize you have it yet)
microorganisms...normal body flora helps to resist infection by releasing antibacterial substances and inhibiting multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms.
each of your body systems has defense mechanisms against infection as well. such as urine being acidic.
its an immunologic defense against tissue injury, infection, or allergy. inflammation is nonspecific... doesn't matter what you do, burn your finger, stub your toe, whatever you do will cause inflammation.
different types of injury:
mechanical injury: any kind of fracture
biological: bacteria, protozoa
you have vascular and cellular responses (vascular: swelling, redness, heat, pain)
sanguineous is drainage of blood?
serous: type of drainage like clear to yellow transparent drainage.
purulent: puss like drainage.
signs of local inflammation and infection are identical
functions of the inflammatory respsonse?
restitution of normal, functioning cells after injury. Fibrous repair when restitution of functioning cells is impossible.
steps in an acute inflammatory response?
tissue injury and the release of chemical mediators.
vasodilation and increased blood flow.
swelling & retraction of activated endothelial cells.
increased vascular permeability & leakage of small plasma proteins.
movement of immune response cells to the site of injury
movement of glucose and oxygen to the site needing repair.
Release of chemical repair factors from activated endothelial cells.
Common diagnostic test:
CBC: (complete blood count)
WBC w/ differential: (white blood cell count: like basophil, monocytes , lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils)
CRP: C-reactive protein: is a blood test marker for inflammation in the body.
ESR: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate:is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Serological tests to detect specific antibodies or viruses
MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging
CAT: also called CT scans
rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE)
most helpful after sprain, strain, or trauma.
helps minimize swelling.
most beneficial for the first 24-48 hours after injury.
the normal physiological response to microorganisms and proteins as well as conditions associated with an inadequate or excessive immune response.
white blood cells
function of immune system?
identify and destroy harmful cells
remove cellular debris
60-80% of total leukocytes
neutrophils: phagocytic (most numerous help bacterial infection)
eosinophils: phagocytic (elevated with things to do with allergies)
basophils: contain chemicals (elevated in things like parasitic infections.)
red blood cell survives for how long?
120 days (3-4 months)
Lymphocytes have 3 types:
T Cells: helper t cells, cytoxic T cells, or memory T (recognition)
B Cells: on contact with antigen, activated and mature into plasma cells or memory cells
Natural killer cells: immune surveillance, resistance to infection. (destruction of early malignant cells)
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types of immune response?
innate immunity: what you're born with.
active acquired immunity: when infection comes into your body, your body makes memory cells and next time you come in contact with that same infection, youre body knows exactly how to fight it. (also vaccines)
passive acquired immunity: mother baby passing on those immunities.
exaggerated immune functioning: symptoms? and clinical findings?
allergic symptoms, pain, fatigue, fever.
allergic response: (mild allergic response such as rash, hives, teary eyes, runny nose/severe allergic response like anaphylaxis shock: tongue or airway is gonna swell up)
Autoimmune disorders: can range from vague findings to findings associated with organ failure.
Suppressed immune functioning: symptoms and clinical findings?
symptoms: report of frequent infections, report of poor wound healing, fatigue, malaise, or weight loss.
may appear poorly nourished or have wasting syndrome.
may have chronic wounds.
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Health Care associated Infections (HAI's)
results from delivery of health services in a health care facility.
patients at greater risk for health care associated infections (HAI's)
Multiple illnesses, older adults,
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Types of HAI infection:
iatrogenic: from a procedure
exogenous: from microorganisms outside the individual
endogenous: when the paitents flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results.
Risk factor of HAI?
number of health care employees with direct contact with the patient.
types & numbers of invasion procedures
length of hospitalization.
Major sites for HAI infection?
surgical or traumatic wounds.
urinary & respiratory tracts
factors influencing infection prevention & control:
age, nutritional status, stress, disease process, treatments or conditions that compromise the immune response
nursing process assessment includes:
you are caring for a patient who underwent surgery 48 hours ago. on physical assessment, you notice that the wound looks red and swollen. the patient ............
notify the physician
goals for care with infection often include:
hand hygiene, wiping down equipment,
health promotion: preventing an infection from developing or spreading.
treating an infectious process includes eliminating the infectious organisms and supporting the patients defenses.
when implementing care, consider:
medical & surgical asepsis
absence of pathogenic (disease producing) microorganisms
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