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Music History Chapter 19 Terms and Definitions.

Water Music

3 Suites and 22 mvmts composed by Handel. Performed without continuo. To be performed on the Thames River in London.


Bach became court music director here and composed solo and ensemble music, as well as pedagogical works.

Music for the Royal Fireworks

Handel-orchestral suite originally for winds, accompanied a fireworks display in London celebrating the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle

St. Thomas's Kirche

Bach's was responsible for the education of several hundred boys here, On the average he had about 55 boys in the choir, who alternated singing at the two churches, one cantata every two weeks


music that precedes a fugue.

chorale prelude

Relatively short setting for organ of a CHORALE MELODY, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Lutheran church service.
In each prelude of the Orgelbüchlein, the chorale tune is heard once in one of the below ways.
In canon
Elaborately ornamented
Unadorned with a variety of accompaniments


"Little Organ Book" This manuscript collection of chorale preludes was written at Weimar. The book had a pedagogical aim in addition to providing repertoire.

Well-Tempered Clavier

There are two separate publications by Bach, each of which has twenty-four preludes and fugues.
The works had pedagogical functions as well
The preludes illustrate different types of keyboard performance conventions.

A Musical Offering

This collection has a three- and a six-part ricercare for keyboard and ten canons, based on a theme proposed by Frederick the Great, Bach added a trio sonata for flute (Frederick's instrument), violin, and continuo and dedicated the work to the king.

Art of Fugue

Written by Bach, This collection systematically demonstrates all types of fugal writing. It has eighteen canons and fugues based on the same subject

Brandenburg Concerto

Composed by Bach. Except for the first work, all of the concertos adopt the three-movement structure, ritornello forms, and style of Italian solo concertos.
The Fifth Concerto has an astonishing cadenza for the harpsichord.
The six works are dedicated to the margrave of Brandenburg

collegium musicum

a group of university students and musicians that gave regular concerts in Leipzig, Germany. Bach was appointed as the director of the collegium musicum from 1723-50. music for the middle class.

church cantata

A piece of moderate length for voices and instruments. In Germany, meant to be performed in Lutheran services. The words addressed the religious content of the day. A musical sermon

Erdmann Neumeister

a theologian and poet, created a new type of sacred work that he called by the Italian term cantata. Bach preferred this new style.

Mass in B minor

Bach's only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary.
Too long to function in a service, the work can be seen as an anthology of sacred music types.

elector of Hanover

Handel became music director for him and Handel used the position to establish himself in London.

King George I

The elector of Hanover who after he came into power doubled Handel's pension.

Royal Academy of Music

Handel's opera compay, one of two producing Italian opera in eighteenth-century London. Performances were at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket

King's Theatre in the Haymarket

Where performances where held by the Royal Academy of Music

simple recitative

a musically heightened speech accompanied only by baso continuo.

accompanied recitative (recitative obbligato)

Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text

prima donna

The principal female "First Lady" had the most and best arias.


a term applied to an aria containing much coloring or many embellishments, rapid passage work, and high notes. brilliant displays of ornamentation

English oratorio

a new genre created by Handel in which he continued the Italian tradition of setting dialogue in recitative and lyrical verses as arias, and also incorporated elements from non-Italian sources such as:
French classical drama
Ancient Greek tragedy
The German passion
The English masque and full anthem

Goldberg Variations

Bach's virtuosic set of thirty variations for keyboard, based on simple air, the air and each variation based on the same thirty-two-bar harmonic pattern.


An oratorio by George Frederick Handel The libretto, taken from the Bible, does not tell a story, but presents a series of contemplations on Christian ideas.
The texts extend from the prophecies of a messiah to the resurrection.
Written for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra, it contains the "Hallelujah Chorus."

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