62 terms

PSY Exam #2: Chapter 4 Study Guide

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Stream of Consciousness
term used to describe the mind's continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings
metacognition
the current term to refer to how we think about thinking
consciousness
includes awareness and arousal
Locations of the brain that involve awareness and arousal
frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and association areas
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. This is usually achieved by age 4
TOMM
theory of mind mechanism that is essential to social interaction. Autistic people lack this
controlled processes
the most alert states of human consciousness, during which individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal
executive function
higher-order, complex cognitive processes, including thinking, planning, and problem solving
automatic processes
states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities
examples of automatic processes
texting without concentrating on the individual keys
daydreaming
a consciousness that is less than active consciousness and similar to dreaming while asleep. It can often happen when one's mind wanders
altered state of consciousness
mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness
causes for altered state of consciousness
drugs, trauma, fever, fatigue, deprivation, meditation, possible hypnosis
waking subconscious awareness
When we are awake, processes are going on just below the surface of our awareness
Incubation
the subconscious processing that leads to a solution of a problem after a break from conscious thought about the problem
level of awareness: sleeping and dreaming
much lower than when daydreaming, but also not non-existent; very low levels of consciousness
unconscious
a result of being knocked out by a blow, anesthetized, or a deep sleep. Freud considered the unconscious as a storehouse of unacceptable, vile thoughts, wishes, impulses.
Biological rhythms
the physiological, functions in the body, such as the rise and fall of hormones, brain activity, that we are unaware of but influence our behavior.
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
A small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark; the body's way of monitoring the change from day to night.
causes of desynchronizing the biological clock
jet lag, change in work shift hours
How to reset biological clock
spend time outside, hormone melatonin
reasons for sleep
1. It serves as a protective role in evolution.
2. Recuperates and restores our bodies tissues.
3. Bring repairs and organizes itself and consolidates memories.
4. Linked with the release of the growth hormone.
problems associated with sleep deprivation
difficulty paying attention and problem-solving, influences moral judgement,
beta waves
High frequency patterns that reflect concentration and alertness
alpha waves
lower-frequency patterns associated with being relaxed or drowsy
stage 1
light sleep, theta waves
stage 2
Deeper sleep characterized by occasional "sleep spindles" (brief high-frequency waves), lasting up to 20 minutes
stage 3
muscle relaxation and emergence of delta waves
stage 4
deep sleep when sleeper is difficult to rouse; delta waves-large, slow brain waves-occur
Stage 5: REM Sleep
After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state.
how long does a sleep cycle last?
90 minutes
what are the three most important neurotransmitters involved in sleep?
acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
acetycholine
initiates REM sleep
serotonin and norepinephrine
ends REM cycle
4 things that help children sleep at night
no caffeine (chocolate), no screens, regular bedtime schedule, and read to them before bed
sleep vs age
as people get older, their need for sleep lessens
health issues associated with sleep problems
obesity and heart disease, psychological problems (depression), other disorders and diseases
insomnia
inability to sleep
sleep walking (somnambulism)
occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one's sleep
sleep talking (somniloquy)
talking during sleep
nightmare
a vivid and frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that occurs during REM sleep
night terror
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and apparent terror; unlike nightmares, night terrors are seldom remembered
Narcolepsy
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
sleep apnea
a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep
Sigmund Freud's opinion on dreams
the key to our subconscious minds
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
cognitive theory of dreaming
theory proposing that dreaming can be understood by applying the same cognitive concepts used to study the waking mind
activation-synthesis theory
theory in which neural signals from external environment influence events in dream
hypnosis
state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion
first step of hypnosis
minimize distractions and make participant comfortable
second step in hypnosis
instruct participant to focus on something specific, such as ticking clock
third step in hypnosis
inform participant what to expect in hypnotic state, such as relaxation or floating sensation
fourth step in hypnosis
suggest events participant knows will occur/ is occurring such as "your eyes are getting heavy". when suggested effects occur, participant will interpret it as being caused by hypnotist's suggestion. Will see future suggestions as indicators for what is about to happen, and thus becomes more suggestable.
hypnotizability
the degree to which a person can enter a deep hypnotic state. People who can easily immerse themselves in imaginary activity (listening to music, reading novel) are more easily hypnotized
divided consciousness view of hypnosis
Hilgard's view that hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two separate components, one that follows the hypnotist's commands and the other that acts as a "hidden observer."
social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis
The perspective that hypnosis is a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or she believes that a hypnotized person should behave.
uses for hypnosis
Reduce pain; Reduce stress; Improve concentration & attention; Modify behaviour in eating disorders; Suppress gag reflex; Eliminate recurring nightmares
meditation
The attainment of a peaceful state of mind in which thoughts are not occupied by worry; the meditator is mindfully present to his or her thoughts and feelings but is not consumed by them.
lovingkindness meditation
development of loving acceptance of oneself and others
hypnagoic reverie
an overwhelming feeling of wellness that everything is going to work out