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Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System; Blood
Terms in this set (83)
is composed of the heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular).
transport blood away from the heart
transport blood toward the heart
are permeable, microscopic vessels between arteries and veins. Serve as the sites of exchange between the blood and body tissues; it is from our capillaries that oxygen and nutrients exit the blood and carbon dioxide and cellular wastes enter the blood.
-Fluid Connective Tissue
-Losing too much, fatal
-Responsible for transporting gases, nutrients and hormones.
-Ever changing composition
-Composed of formed elements and plasma.
-Plasma: is the fluid portion of blood containing plasma proteins and dissolved solutes.
*Erythrocytes (red blood cells); Transport respiratory gases in the blood. Life span of 120 days
*Leukocytes (white blood cells); defend against pathogens. Life span varies from 12 hours to years.
*Platelets; Help clot blood, and prevent blood loss from damaged vessels. life span of about8 to 10 days.
-Transports formed elements and dissolved molecules and ions
-Carries oxygen from and carbon dioxide to lungs.
-Transports nutrients, hormones, heat and waste products. "delivery system" for the body
What does blood Regulate?
Regulation of Body temperature
-absorbs heat from body cells
-released from blood at body surface; as blood transported through vessels of the skin.
Regulation of body pH
-absorbs acids and base from body cells.
-contains chemical buffers that bind and release hydrogen ions.
Regulation of fluid balance
-water added to blood from GI tract
-Water lost in urine, skin
-exchange of fluid between blood plasma and interstitial fluid
-contains proteins and ions; Exert osmotic pressure. Pulls fluid back into capillaries.
>Contains leukocytes, plasma proteins, other molecules.
--Help protect the body from harmful substances
>Platelets and plasma proteins.
--Help protect body against blood loss
Six Characteristics of blood
4. Plasma concentration
6. Blood pH
-Depends on oxygenation status
-appears blue in superficial veins
-due to the way blue light reflected back to the eye
-The average volume of blood in an adult is 5 Liters.
-Males with slightly more blood than females due to size
-Normal blood volume essential for maintaining blood pressure.
>4 to 5 times more viscous than water (Thicker)
>Depends on amount of dissolved substances in blood
-ex. increased if erythrocytes increased
-increased if amount of fluid decreases
>Relative concentration of solutes in plasma
>Determines whether fluid move into or out of plasma by osmosis.
-ex. during dehydration plasma hypertonic
-fluid moving into plasma from surrounding tissues.
-1 degree higher (38C) than measured body temperature (37C)
-Warms area through which it travels.
-Plasma slightly alkaline
-pH between 7.35-7.45
-Plasma protein shape dependent upon H+ concentration; with pH alteration, proteins become denatured.
-Arterial puncture ("stick")
-from median cubital vein
-Superficial veins easy to locate
-walls of vein thinner than arteries
-venous blood pressure lower, so wound seals quickly
-From finger, ear lobe, toe, heel puncture.
-Drop of blood to prepare blood smear
Arterial Puncture ("stick")
-from radial artery (wrist) or brachial artery (elbow)
- check efficiency of gas exchange at lungs
>Plasma and formed elements
>separated into liquid and cellular components by centrifuge
-spins blood sample in a tube
-separates into three components
Three components of a centrifuged blood sample
-lower layer of centrifuged blood
-44% of the sample
-middle slightly gray-white layer
-composed of leukocytes and platelets
-less than 1% of the sample
-straw colored liquid at top of tube
-remaining sample (about 55%)
>The percentage of the volume of all formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets) in the blood
>Clinical definition: percentage of only erythrocytes.
>Adult males tend to have a hematocrit ranging between 42% and 56%.
>Adult females between 38% and 46%
>Males with higher hematocrit due to testosterone
-stimulates kidney to produce more erythropoietin
-promotes erythrocyte production
*Hematocrit values vary somewhat and are dependent upon the age and sex of the individual.
-small amount of blood placed on slide on thin layer
- stain applied for contrast
-components of formed elements seen under microscope.
-Erythrocytes; most numerous, appear as pink or purple biconcave discs.
-Leukocytes; larger than erythrocytes. Nucleus is very noticeable. Ex. Lymphocyte, neutrophil.
-Platelets; appear as small fragments of cells.
Composition of Blood Plasma: Plasma
-7% Plasma Proteins
-1% Dissolved molecules and ions.
>similar composition to interstitial fluid
>Protein concentration higher in plasma than interstitial fluid.
>Blood considered a colloid because it:
-contains proteins in plasma
-Albumin,Globulins, Fibrinogen and other clotting proteins, Fibrinogen.
-Enzymes and some hormones.
>Most produced in the Liver
>Others produced by leukocytes and other organs
Colloid Osmotic Pressure
>Osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins
-prevent loss of fluid from blood as moves through capillaries
-helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure
>Can be decreased with disease
-ex. liver disease, resulting in decreased production of plasma proteins.
-ex. kidney damage, increasing elimination of plasma proteins
-result in fluid loss from blood
-results in fluid retention in interstitial space.
>smallest and most abundant plasma proteins
>Make up 58% of total proteins
>Exerts greatest colloid osmotic pressure
-helps maintain blood volume and pressure
>Act as transport proteins
>Carry ions, hormones, some lipids.
>Second largest group of plasma proteins, make up 37% of total proteins
>Smaller alpha-globulins and larger beta-globulins
-transport some water-insoluble molecules, hormones, metals, ions.
-also called immunoglobulins or antibodies
-play part in bodies defenses.
>Make up 4% of total proteins
>Contributes to blood clot formation
>Following trauma, converted to insoluble fibrin strands.
>Plasma with clotting proteins removed
>Less than 1% of total proteins
-Enzymes to accelerate chemical reactions
-Some hormones (ex. insulin)
Blood considered a solution
-Contains dissolved organic and inorganic molecules and ions
-include electrolytes, nutrients, gases, waste products
-Polar or charged substances dissolving easily
-Non-polar molecules requiring transporter protein.
Formed Elements in the Blood
-Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets
-Make up 45% of whole blood.
>continual production of formed elements
>occurs in red bone marrow of certain bones.
-hemopoietic stem cells
-can differentiate into many types of cells (pluripotent)
-produce two different lines for blood cell development: Myeloid line, Lymphoid line
-all leukocytes except lymphocytes
-megakaryocytes; (cells that produce platelets)
-Only forms lymphocytes.
-Process of erythrocyte production
-make up more than 99% of formed elements
-Requires iron, B vitamins, amino acids.
=Start: Myeloid stem cell, Progenitor cell, Early erythroblast, Late erythroblast, Normoblast (nucleus ejected), Reticulocyte, Erythrocyte.
>production of leukocytes
>Involves three types of maturation processes
-Granulocytes, Monocytes, Lymphocytes
*Granulocyte Line; Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils. Derived from myeloid stem cell.
-START; Myeloid stem cell, progenitor cell, Myeloblast, Promyelocytes, Eosinophilc/Basophilic/Neutrophilic myelocyte, Eosinophil/Basophil/Neutrophil (granulocytes).
*Monocyte Line; derived from myeloid stem cell.
-START; Myeloid stem cell, progenitor cell, monoblast, promonocyte,monocyte.
*Lymphocyte Line; derived from lymphoid stem cell.
-START; Lymphoid Stem Cell, B/T-lymphoblast, B/T-Lymphocyte.
>Production of platelets
>Megakaryoblast produced from myeloid stem cell.
>Forms megakaryocyte under influence of thrombopoietin.
-large size and multi lobed nucleus
-produces thousands of platelets.
*START; myeloid stem cell, progenitor cell, megakaryoblast,+(thrombopoietin)= Promegakaryocyte, Megakaryocyte (proplatelet), Platelets.
-Small flexible, formed elements
- commonly referred to as red blood cells.
-Lack nucleus and cellular organelles.
-Have biconcave disc structure
-Plasma membrane with enclosed hemoglobin molecules.
-Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissues and lungs.
-Can stack and line up in single file, a.k.a Rouleau
-Has latticework of spectrin protein; provides support and flexibility to erythrocyte.
>red pigmented protein
>Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
>Termed oxygenated when maximally loaded with oxygen
>Termed deoxygenated when some oxygen lost
>Oxyhemoglobin (bound to oxygen)
>Deoxyhemoglobin (not bound to oxygen)
>Carbaminohemoglobin (carbon dioxide bound to amino group)
>composed of four protein building blocks, globins
-two alpha chains
-two slightly different beta chains
-all with a heme group.
*iron ion in center, which binds oxygen for transport.
Oxygen binding to Hemoglobin
-each hemoglobin capable of binding four molecules of oxygen
-binding fairly weak
-allows rapid attachment in lungs
-allows rapid detachment in body tissues.
Carbon dioxide binding to Hemoglobin
-binding fairly weak
-transport molecule from body tissues to lungs.
>controlled by hormone, erythropoietin (EPO)
-produced primarily in kidney. Liver smaller producer.
-caused by increased oxygen levels.
-decreased blood oxygen (altitude, exercise, blood loss)
-detected by CHEMORECEPTORS in kidney
-EPO released and travels to red bone marrow
-stimulates myeloid cells to increase erythrocyte production
-Additional erythrocytes released into circulation
-Results in increased blood oxygen levels.
>Influenced by testosterone levels:
-Stimulates kidney to produce more EPO
-males with higher testosterone and higher erythrocyte count.
>Affected by altitude:
-At high altitude, lower atmospheric pressure
-less oxygen taken into the lungs
-compensate by releasing more EPO
-can carry more blood to tissues
-increases blood viscosity; can increase chance of cardiovascular complications.
-used by some athletes to enhance performance
-one method, self donation of erythrocytes.
=blood removed prior to competition.
=increases EPO production in kidneys
=RBC transfused back prior to competition
-increased blood viscosity
-heart required to work harder
-may cause permanent cardiovascular damage
-banned from athletic competition
>RBC unable to synthesize proteins to repair itself. Due to lack of nucleus and cellular organelles.
>Max. Life span 120 days; old erythrocytes phagocytized in spleen or liver macrophages.
>Globin protein, iron ion, heme group.
-all need to be disposed of.
>Globin proteins and erythrocyte membrane proteins
-broken down into free amino acids
-used by body for protein synthesis
>Iron component in hemoglobin
-transported by globulin protein, TRANSFERRIN
-Transported to liver
-bound to storage proteins, Ferritin, Hemosiderin
-Ferritin, Primary storage mechanism
-Stored mainly in liver and spleen
-transported to red bone marrow, as needed for production by transferrin
>Heme Group (minus Iron)
-converted within macrophages into green pigment Billiverdin.
-eventually converted into yellowish pigment billirubin; transported by albumin to liver. component of digestive secretion , Bile. Produced by the liver and released into the small intestine.
-Bilirubin converted to Urobilinogen in small intestine. -(a)May continue through large intestine and convert by intestinal bacteria to stercobilin, brown pigment expelled from the body as component of feces.
-(b) May be absorbed back into blood and converted to Urobilin, yellow pigment excreted by kidneys.
>% of functioning erythrocytes lower than normal
>decreased oxygen delivery to body tissues
>Symptoms of lethargy, shortness of breath, pallor, palpitations
>can be caused by:
-abnormal erythrocyte formation
-heavy blood loss
-deficiency of iron, vitamin b12, or folic acid
>can be treated by pharmaceutical EPO
>Sometimes signals underlying problem (ex. undiagnosed stomach ulcer)
>higher percentage of erythrocytes in blood
>puts strain on heart
>can be caused by
-chronic hypoxia and compensatory effect
-unregulated erythrocyte growth.
-project from plasma membrane of erythrocyte
-have implications for blood transfusion, pregnancy
ABO Blood Group
>consists of two surface antigens, A and B
>Presence or absence determines ABO blood type:
-Type A: erythrocytes with surface antigen A
-Type B: RBC with surface antigen B
-Type AB: RBC with both antigens A&B
-Type O: RBC with neither antigen
>Antigens accompanied by specific antibodies
- Anti-A antibodies that react with surface antigen A
- Anti-B antibodies that react with surface antigen B
-Type A blood with Anti-B antibodies
-Type B blood with Anti-A antibodies
-Type AB blood with neither antibodies
-Type O blood with both antibodies.
>clumping of erythrocytes
>person transfused with blood of incompatible type
>can block blood vessels and prevent normal circulation
>Can cause hemolysis, rupture of erythrocytes, organ damage
>Compatibility between donor and recipient
-determined prior to blood donations using agglutination test.
Rh Factor (surface antigen D)
>another surface erythrocyte antigen
>presence determines Rh blood type
>when present, termed Rh Positive.
>when absent, termed Rh Negative.
>antibodies to Rh factor
-appear when Rh negative person is exposed to Rh positive blood. (ex. inappropriate blood transfusion)
>ABO and Rh types; usually reported together (ex. type AB and Rh+ reported as AB+
>help defend body against pathogens
>contain nucleus and cellular organelles
>do not contain hemoglobin
>motile and flexible
>most found within body tissues
-enter tissues from blood vessels
-Diapedesis, squeezing through endothelial cells of blood vessels.
-Chemotaxis; attraction of leukocytes to infection site. molecules released from damaged cells or pathogens
>Leukocytes are divided into two classes; Granulocytes and Agranulocytes. Based upon the presence or absence of cytoplasmic secretory vesicles termed specific granules.
>Have visible granules seen with light microscope
>Consist of Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
>Most numerous leukocyte in blood
-also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes
>Cytoplasm with pale granules when stained
>Enter tissue spaces; phagocytize infectious pathogens
>Number rising dramatically in chronic bacterial infection.
>50-70% of total leukocytes
>1-4% of leukocytes
>Bilobed nucleus connected by thin strand
>Cytoplasm with reddish granules
>phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes or allergens that cause allergic reactions
>active in cases of parasitic worm infection
>1.5 times larger in diameter than an erythrocyte.
>0.5-1 % of leukocytes
>Cytoplasm with blue violet granules
>Contain histamine and heparin
-causes increase in blood vessel diameter (vasodilation)
-increased capillary permeability
-causes allergic symptoms; swollen nasal membranes, runny nose, watery eyes.
-inhibits blood clotting.
>about 1.5 times larger than an erythrocyte.
>with Smaller granules not visible with light microscope
>reside in lymphatic organs and structures
>20-40% of blood leukocytes
>dark staining rounded nucleus
- T-Lymphocytes, managing immune response
- B-Lymphocytes, becoming plasma cells and producing antibodies
-NK cells, attacking abnormal and infected tissue cells.
>2-8% of blood leukocytes
>Take up residence in tissues
-transform into large phagocytic cells, macrophages
-phagocytize bacteria, viruses, debris
-Reduced number of leukocytes
- Increases risk of developing infection
-slightly elevated leukocyte count
-may be caused by recent infection or stress
Differential count and changes in leukocyte profiles
-measures amount of each type of leukocyte
-determines whether leukocytes immature
-normal range 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter
>malignancy in leukocyte forming cells
>abnormal development and proliferation of leukocytes.
>increase in abnormal leukocyte number
>decrease in erythrocyte and megakaryocytic lines
>Results in anemia and bleeding
*Acute Leukemia: rapid progression. Death typically within months in children and young adults.
*Chronic Leukemia: slower progression. In middle aged and older individuals.
>membrane enclosed cellular fragments without nucleus
>Serve important role in blood clotting
>Normally 150,000 to 400,000 per cubic millimeter blood.
>Circulate for 8 to 10 days
>30% stored in spleen
>Thrombocytopenia: abnormally small number of platelets in blood.
>Process of blood clotting
>Stops blood flowing through injured blood vessel wall
>Three overlapping phases:
-platelet plug formation
-Sudden constriction of blood vessels
-first phase in response to blood vessel injury
-limits blood able to leak from vessel
-continues into the next phase
-Lasts from few to many minutes
-greater vasoconstriction with greater vessel damage.
>formed from platelets arriving at injury site
>When blood vessel damaged
-collagen fibers in vessel wall exposed
-platelets sticking here
-assisted by von Willebrand factor, plasma protein
-platelets developing long processes allowing for better adhesion
-closing off of injury due to platelet plug.
Coagulation (Blood Clotting)
-most important and complex component of hemostasis
-clot with an insoluble protein network
-composed of fibrin
-traps other elements of blood; Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, plasma proteins.
Substances involved in coagulation
>Requires numerous substances:
-Calcium, clotting factors, platelets, Vitamin K
The sympathetic response to blood loss
>If greater than 10% of blood lost
-sympathetic response initiated
-causes increased vasoconstriction, heart rate, force of heart contraction
- blood redistributed to heart and brain
-effective in maintaining blood pressure until 40% of blood lost.
>Requires clot retraction and fibrinolysis
-occurs as clot is forming; contracts and squeezes the serum out of developing clot. Makes clot smaller.
-Degradation of fibrin strands by plasmin
-begins within 2 days after clot formation
-occurs slowly over a number of days
-Group of genetic bleeding disorders
-Hemophilia A and B most common
-Occur in x-linked recessive pattern
-males exhibiting full blown disease
-females typically carriers
-deficiency in platelet count
-increased breakdown or decreased production
-may occur in bone marrow infections or cancer
Drugs interfering with clotting
-may cause bleeding if taken at higher doses
-aspirin, ibuprofen, warfarin, ginkgo
-increased tendency to clot blood
-can lead to thrombus, blood vessel clot
-when dislodged within blood, embolus
-if lodges in lungs, pulmonary embolism; can cause breathing problems and death
-can have drug-related, environmental, and genetic causes. (ex. birth control pills, prolonged inactivity)
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Similar to flagella, except that they wrap around the cell.
What type of epithelial tissue does the epidermis consists of?
Because you have no proteolytic enzymes in your mouth there is no way to start the digestion process chemically in our mouth.
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