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41 terms

History Test-Islam

Islam, Arab
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Sheikh
ruled the tribes; chosen from leading families by a council of elders
Quran
holy book of the religion of Islam
Islam
means "peace through the submission to the will of Allah"
Hijrah
journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah
hajj
pilgrimage to Makkah
shari'ah
law code developed by scholars
Allah
supreme god of Islam
Muhhammad
prophet of Allah
Khadija
Muhammad's wife and the 1st to be converted
Muslims
those who practice the religion of Islam
Bedouins
Arabs in the desert that supported Muhammad
caliph
successor of Muhammad; leader of Muslims
jihad
"struggle in the name of God"
Shiite
only accept only decedents of Ali as true rulers of Islam
Sunni
did not agree with Umayyad ruler but accepted them as rulers
vizier
headed the council that advised the caliph
sultan
Turkish leader that captured Baghdad and took command of the empire
mosque
muslim houses of worship
Ab Bakr
leader after Muhammad; father-in-law
Mu'awiyah
general of Syria and one of Ali's chief rivals; bacame caliph
Umayyad dynasty
established by Mu'awiyah
Berbers
pastoral people living along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa
Hussein
led a revolt to gain power; second son of Ali and son-in-law of Muhammad
Abbasid dynasty
set up by Abu al-Abbas; lasted until 1258
Harun al-Rashid
reign is known as the golden age; known for his charity
Seljuk Turks
nomadic people from central Asia
Saladin
Muslim ruler that took control of Egypt and made himself sultan ending the Fatimid dynasty
Mongols
pastoral people who swept out of the Gobi to seize control over much of the known world
bazaar
covered market
dowry
gift of money or property to their brides family
Abbasids
while they were in power the capital city Baghdad was one of the most prosperous cities in the empire
Fatimids
When they came to power in Egypt the focus of trade went to Cairo
astrolabe
instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the positions of the stars and planets
minaret
famous section of the Samarra mosque; tower where the muezzin calls people to pray 5 times a day
muezzin
person who calls people to prayer 5 times a day
arabesque
geometric patterns
Ibn-Rushd
philosopher that wrote a commentary on almost all of Aristotle's surviving works
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
wrote a medical encyclopedia that stressed the contagious nature of some diseases
Ibn-khaldun
most prominent historian of his time; wrote "Introduction to History"
Omar Khayyam
wrote the Rubaiyat; poet/mathatician/astronomer
Alhambra
famous Islmaic palace