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B1 (thiamine) - cofactor for what enzymes?
pyruvate dehydrogenase (glycolysis)
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle)
transketolase (HMP shunt)
branched chain AA dehydrogenase
B1 (thiamine) - people you see it with?
alcoholics (secondary to malnutrition and malabsorption) and malnourished
B3 (niacin) - causes of deficiency
Hartnup disease (decreased tryptophan absorption), malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased tryptophan metabolism), and INH (decreased B6)
B6 (pyridoxine) - converted into what? why?
pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor used in transamination (e.g., ALT, AST), decarboxylation reactions, glycogen phosphorylation, and heme synthesis (ALA synthase)
B6 (pyridoxine) - required for synthesis of what vitamin from what amino acid?
niacin from tryptophan
B12 (cobalamin) - function
cofactor for homocystein methyltransferase (transfers methyl groups as methylcobalamin) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
B12 (cobalamin) - causes of deficiency
malabsorption (sprue, enteritis, Diphyllobothrium latum), lack of intrinsic factor (pernicious anemia, gastric bypass surgery), absence of terminal ileum (Crohn's disease), or veganism
B12 (cobalamin) - what does deficiency do?
macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia; neurologic symptoms (paresthesias, subacute combined degeneration) due to abnormal myelin; irreversible nerve damage if prolonged deficiency
Folic acid - function
converted to THF, a coenzyme for 1 carbon transfer/methylation reactions; important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
Folic acid - deficiency
macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia; no neurologic symptoms; MOST COMMON in USA
ATP + methionin = SAM; transfers methyl units; regeneration of SAM is dependent on both B12 and folate
Biotin - function
cofactor for carboxylation enzymes
-pyruvate carboxylase (forms oxaloacetate)
-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (forms malonyl-CoA)
-propionyl-CoA carboxylase (forms methylmalonyl-CoA)
Biotin - main causes of deficiency
antibiotic use or excessive ingestion of raw eggs (avidin in egg whites binds it)
Vitamin C - function
-facilitates iron absorption (keeps it reduced)
-hydroxylates proline and lysine on collagen
-necessary for dopamin beta-hydroxylase which converts dopamine to NE
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