IME 319 - Midterm

What is studied in Human Facotors?
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Terms in this set (65)
The Scope of HF- Engineering Psychology - Cognitive Engineering - Ergonomics - Human Factors - idk what elseCommunication - Define: purposeful, meaningful exchange using a natural means (technical)idk5 Stages of team development1) Forming - based on skills 2) Storming - don't get along right away (get thru storming) 3) Norming - harmony (everyone agrees to get along) 4) Performing - everything goes well (working) 5) Adjourning - everything is done and you split (leave team)The Facilitator - what do they do, why every team needs one?- facilitator is coordinator of team (need to assign someone) - take notes - remind teammates - to do list - sets meet up times - suggest alternatives - summarize decisions - help solve problems - only one person! (if everyone is responsible then no one is)Brainstorming - what is it, why we do it, how it works (steps)1) clearly defined problem statement 2) everyone generates ideas 3) use round-robin to present ideas 4) includes discussion 5) requires consensus - write things down - some might need more time - no bad ideasWhat should you do to mediate when a team is getting into trouble?idk something with trust, collaboration, and decentralizationWhat does it look like when teams are getting into trouble?Individually - self-interest - individuals not using feedback - differences in styles - egos Group - us vs them - unclear objectives - ill defined roles - defensive roles - getting "off task"What are a teams best practices?- team bonding - team rules - keep control - agenda - time keeperWhat are some team ground rules?- goals - work norms - facilitatorWhat should you do during the team's time compared to the individual's time?Team Time - decisions - brainstorming - plans of action - assignments Individual Time - everything elseWhy is it better for your team to work together, side-by-side, physically in the same location where you see each other, rather than remotely?1. People's attitude over the internet and in person are different 2. Be able to physically describe something, there is a limit to explaining via phone or internet.Define Experimenta systematic procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect, to test or establish a hypothesis, or to illustrate a known effectWhy are experiments used?- to see how people are reacting to your design in a controlled and stimulated environment - to improve a situation or solve a problemA ProcessInput ---> Processing (Storage) ---> Output ---> Feedback (repeat)VariableA factor that can change in an experiment; ControlledEffectresult of the changed variable3 Forms of Research1. Review Data - look at past data 2. Design Experiment - Simulation 3. Design Experiment - collect own data in real world over timeApplied ScienceThe practical use of scientific information to improve human lifeBest experimental results come from...a combination of research in laboratory and real world environment.X Variable- Independent Variable - The thing you are trying to manipulate to get an effectY Variable- Dependent Variable - The outcomeConfounding VariableWhen you cannot tell what factor the results were due toNoisecontrolling the setting of the experiment (sounds, temperature, sights, etc.)List several reasons why our bodies vary in dimensions (variability)?- age - gender/sex - ethnicity - generational - occupational - malnutrition - transient diurnal - living conditions (we study because there is variability)'Hands Free' Law (No Texting & Driving)- state legislator was in auto accident - Human Factors company provided evidence that one could not text and drive simultaneously - example of texting and driving experiment set upDOE Cake FactorsOven, Sugar, Flour, Eggs Change in amounts of each5 Steps in Conducting an Experiment1. Define Problem & State Hypothesis 2. Specify Experimental Plan (define variables, subjects, and tasks) 3. Conduct Study & Collect Data 4. Analyze Data (stats: mean, SD, percentiles) 5. Draw ConclusionsHypothesis FormatIf____[I do this]____, then____[this]____will happen.Controlling the Experiment- Plan for confounding variables - Conduct a "pretest" to ensure experiment is defined & repeatable - Consistent data collection - No peripheral disturbances - Participant selectionEthical Issues- Safety - Privacy - ConsentWhat is the most important thing for DOE?the ability to determine factors and settings that minimize the effects of the uncontrollable factorsHow do you specify the experimental plan? (#2 step in DOE)-State independent, dependent, and control variables -Define tasks (a procedure that specifies what test each test subject does) -Define # of subjects (15-20 minimum)What is important to do in Conducting the Study, Collect Data? (#3 step in DOE)Minimize confounding variables and distractionsWhat are order effects?The order in which the subject receives his or her experimental conditionsWhat is counter balancing?Different subjects receive the treatment conditions in different ordersWhy is the use of military data (data bases) good? Why is it bad?Good - free data - very extensive measurements of the body Bad - may not accommodate everyone - could be more athletic people - not many females - don't know ethnicity - may not be recent data - may only be young peopleHow is data obtained from the military?every new military personal had to have these measurements doneWhat are the types of data that would be collected?1) Structural (static) 2) Functional (dynamic, more than one limb moving, more than one plane)List occupations and tasks that require working memory- railway worker - nurses - police officers - chefs - waiter & waitresses - surgeon - driver - data entry - pilot - construction workers - air traffic controllersGood and bad of data tables:- reliable & valid - can become outdated - untrusted non standard measures - expensive to get - civilian measurements that are not common to doControlstructure and organization needed to see relationshipsShort term vs working (long) memoryinformation has to be worked/rehearsed in order to have it in long term memoryThe 2 Type of Storage Systems1) Visual images or spatial (recall places, see and remember in mind) 2) Verbal (concepts you recall, rehearsal, use songs or acronyms, semantic/symbolic meaning)4 Main Limitations1) Capacity - max load, how much information can be kept active (chunking, lucky 7) 2) Time - how long it can be active (gotta do something with it, if you don't use it you lose it) 3) Confusion due to similarity - how similar the material is to another 4) Attention - distractions (selective hearing, pay attention to something that's the most dominant)Example of a visual echo:- GPS - airport signs - train tracks - cross walkWays to help the worker in working memory:- limit things to remember - task & demand - minimize workload - provide visual echoes - placeholder for sequential tasks - exploit chinks - minimize confusion - avoid unnecessary zeros - shorten instructions - get to the pointDefinition of Anthropometrics- study & measurement of human body dimensions - data used to develop design guidelines for heights, clearances, grips, and reaches of workplaces . & equipment for purpose of accommodating the body dimensions of the potential workforce or product userDatabases vs tables:- databases can give you percentile measurements - tables online might be old, don't know who was measuredWhen you collect your data, what statistics are done?- normal curve - mean - percentiles - standard deviationStandard Deviation- tells the dispersion of scatter in a group of measures - ( 1 SD = 68%, 2 SD = 95.4%)Percentiles% of population with a body dimension of a certain size or smaller (design for 5% female or lower)The steps to applying anthropometric data to design are:1) Determine user population 2) Determine relevant body dimensions 3) Determine percentage to be accommodated (possible to accomodate everyone) 4) Determine percentile value 5) Adjust data 6) Mock-up or simulationAdjustability Requirement- adjusting the workplace - adjust worker position relative to the workplace - adjust the work piece - adjust the tool (Design for everyone!)What is working memory?goes from sensory input to sensory register, then to short term memory where it has to be rehearsed to be in long term memory - while at sensory register and short term memory you can forget the information - (know the diagram)Workstation Design Considerations- safety clearances - optimizing space - less reaching - standing vs sitting (hybrid) - height - depth - components & visibility