61 terms

Chapter 10: Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development


Terms in this set (...)

Make-believe friends who exist only in a child's imagination; increasingly common from ages 3 through 7, they combat loneliness and aid emotional regulation.
imaginary friends
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
authoritarian parenting
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives.
neglectful/uninvolved parenting
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
emotional regulation
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
initiative versus guilt
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
externalizing problems
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control. (Also called indulgent parenting.)
permissive parenting
Differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.
gender differences
The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's romantic love.
Electra complex
An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
authoritative parenting
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem.
extrinsic motivation
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
bullying aggression
Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
antisocial behavior
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
sociodramatic play
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
rough-and-tumble play
An illness or disorder of the mind.
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
intrinsic motivation
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
sex differences
A person's understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
psychological control
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
internalizing problems
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
reactive aggression
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
phallic stage
The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's romantic love.
Oedipus complex
Behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession or a privilege.
instrumental aggression
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
relational aggression
Actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
prosocial behavior
A cognitive concept or general belief based on one's experiences, in this case, a child's understanding of sex differences.
gender schema
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed is referred to as:
Emotional regulation.
Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams. These naive predictions are called:
Protective optimism.
In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who received an expected award for drawing:
Were less likely to draw.
By the age of ___, children are less likely to throw temper tantrums.
4 or 5
An example of an externalizing problem is____ and an example of an internalizing problem is ____.
Attacking other people; being withdrawn
A kind of play identified by Mildred Parten is:
Play that mimics aggression, but with no intent to harm, is:
Baumrind's dimension in which parents vary in standards for responsibility and self-control in their children is called:
Expectations for maturity.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning permissive parents?
They have high nurturance.
Multicultural research on parenting styles and their effects on children has found that:
Parental discipline methods are LESS important than parental warmth, support, and concern are.
A parent might ask a child, "How would you feel if someone did that to you?" to:
Encourage empathy.
Freud postulated that young boys have an unconscious desire to replace their fathers and win their mother's exclusive love. He called this:
The Oedipus complex.
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents is:
Which theory of gender differences focuses primarily on children's understanding?
Cognitive theory
A discipline technique that may damage a child's initiative, social acceptance, and math achievement is:
Psychological control.
Children who master _____ have learned when and how to express emotions.
Emotional regulation
Erik Erikson's third developmental stage—the stage during which pride emerges—is called:
Initiative versus guilt.
______ refers to people's feeling that others blame them or disapprove of them.
An illness or disorder of the mind is referred to as:
Emotional regulation differs between:
Younger and older children, cultures, and girls and boys.
Peers provide practice in:
Emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding
Sociodramatic play allows children to:
Explore and rehearse social roles, practice regulating their emotions, and develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context.
Many researchers have traced the effects of parenting on child development, but the researcher whose findings continue to be very influential is:
Parents who have low expectations for maturity and rarely discipline their children are characterized by Baumrind as:
Some children may learn basic literacy from educational programs if:
Their parents watch with them and reinforce the lessons.
Which one of the following terms refers to a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person?
Johnny, age 6, suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason. Johnny is displaying:
Antisocial behavior.
Biological differences between males and females are referred to as:
Sex differences.