341 terms

Human Development Chapters 4-8

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place.

A. just right
B. injury control or harm reduction
C. focus on appearance
B
A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations.

A. hypothalamus
B. amygdala
C. hippocampus
D. corpus callosum
C
A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety.

A. hypothalamus
B. amygdala
C. hippocampus
D. corpus callosum
B
A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body.

A. hypothalamus
B. amygdala
C. hippocampus
D. corpus callosum
A
A long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them.

A. hypothalamus
B. amygdala
C. hippocampus
D. corpus callosum
D
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others.

A. centration
B. irreversibility
C. static reasoning
D. focus on appearance
A
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive.

A. centration
B. animism
C. conservation
B
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent.

A. centration
B. irreversibility
C. static reasoning
D. focus on appearance
D
Piaget's term for young children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective.

A. irreversibility
B. egocentrism
C. focus on appearance
B
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred.

A. centration
B. irreversibility
C. static reasoning
D. focus on appearance
B
Egocentrism is _________ term for young children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective.

a. Piaget.
b. Vygotsky.
c. Erikson.
d. Freud.
a
A person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other is a BALANCED BILINGUAL. T/F
t
The speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning.

A. fast-mapping
B. lateralization
C. centration
A
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) even when its appearance changes.

A. centration
B. animism
C. conservation
C
The most widespread early-childhood education program in the United States, begun in 1965 and funded by the federal government.

A. Montessori Schools
B. Head Start Program
B
Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse.

A. primary prevention
B. tertiary prevention
C. secondary prevention
A
The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.

A. lateralization
B. perseveration
C. myelination
C
The major brain region crucial to the development of emotional expression and regulation; its three main areas are the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus, although recent research has found that many other areas of the brain are involved with emotions.

A. limbic system
B. prefrontal cortex
C. amygdala
D. hypothalamus
A
The area of the cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control.

A. limbic system
B. prefrontal cortex
C. amygdala
D. hypothalamus
B
Actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event (such as illness, injury, or abuse) occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability.

A. primary prevention
B. tertiary prevention
C. secondary prevention
B
The tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time.

A. just right
B. perseveration
C. myelination
B
Actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian or installing traffic lights at dangerous intersections.

A. primary prevention
B. tertiary prevention
C. secondary prevention
C
The tendency of children to insist on having things done in a particular way. This can include clothes, food, bedtime routines, and so on.

A. just right
B. perseveration
C. myelination
A
Literally, "sidedness" referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

A. lateralization
B. perseveration
C. myelination
A
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involve symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible.

A. preoperational intelligence
B. overimitation
C. symbolic thought
A
Preoperational Intelligence is _________ term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involve symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible.

a. Piaget.
b. Vygotsky.
c. Erikson.
d. Freud.
a
The concept that an object or word can stand for something else, including something pretend or something not seen. Once _____ is possible, language becomes much more useful.

A. preoperational intelligence
B. overimitation
C. symbolic thought
C
The tendency of children to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned; common among 2- to 6-year-olds when they imitate adult actions that are irrelevant and inefficient.

A. preoperational intelligence
B. overimitation
C. symbolic thought
B
Vygotsky's term for the skills, cognitive as well as physical, that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently.

A. zone of proximal development (ZPD)
B. egocentrism
C. preoperational intelligence
D. static reasoning
A
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be.

A. centration
B. irreversibility
C. static reasoning
D. focus on appearance
C
A person's theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have a _______, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. That realization is seldom achieved before age 4.

A. theory of mind
B. overregularization
C. overimitation
A
The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more "regular" than it actually is.

A. theory of mind
B. overregularization
C. overimitation
B
Schools that offer early-childhood education based on the philosophy of Maria Montessori (an Italian educator more than a century ago); it emphasizes careful work and tasks that each young child can do.

A. Montessori schools
B. Head Start Program
A
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.

A. overimitation
B. overregularization
C. scaffolding
C
A famous program of early-childhood education that originated in the town of _________, Italy; it encourages each child's creativity in a carefully designed setting.

A. Emerson Waldorf
B. Reggio Emilia
C. Alfred Montessori
B
The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear.

A. overregularization
B. theory-theory
C. scaffolding
B
By age six, the average child in a developed nation weighs _____.
a. between 40 and 50 pounds.
b. between 50 and 60 pounds.
c. between 30 and 40 pounds.
d. between 20 and 30 pounds.
A
The "just-right" phenomenon:
a. refers to young children's insistence on routine.
b. becomes particularly evident after six years of age.
c. is a pathological development in a young child.
d. is uncommon in children under six.
A
Environmental hazards such as pollution interfere with the development of ______________.
a. language skills
b. motor skills
c. brain activity
d. artistic expression
B
Which of the following is an example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment?
a. decreasing family isolation
b. home visits by a social worker
c. removing an abused child from the home
d. preventing teen pregnancy
C
Why do experts prefer the term "injury control" over the term "accident prevention"?
a. The use of the term "accident" suggests that no one is at fault and that certain events are inevitable.
b. Though accidents can be prevented, it is more useful to minimize injury.
c. Federal funding is available for efforts aimed at "injury control," but not at those designed for "accident prevention."
d. The word "prevention" is overused and is generally avoided by all experts.
A
Which area is said to be the "executive" area of the brain?
a. prefrontal cortex
b. corpus callosum
c. occipital cortex
d. hypothalamus
A
The _________ allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.
a. integrative cortex
b. central bundle
c. corpus callosum
d. association area
C
The tendency to stick to one thought or action for a long time is known as:
a. myelination.
b. perseveration.
c. maturation.
d. stranger anxiety.
b
Which of the following is crucial for the expression and regulation of emotions?
a. thalamus
b. prefrontal cortex
c. corpus callosum
d. limbic system
D
Which of the following is a central processor of memory, particularly for remembering locations?
a. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c. amygdala
d. pituitary
A
Which Piagetian term literally means "self-centered"?
a. centration
b. preoperational thought
c. egocentrism
d. conservation
C
Which characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child ignoring all attributes that are not obvious?
a. static reasoning
b. focus on appearance
c. conservation
d. irreversibility
B
After noticing that her younger brother was having difficulty with a jigsaw puzzle, Rose helped him by praising his successes and recognizing his progress. From Vygotsky's perspective, this as an example of:
a. guided participation.
b. conservation.
c. cognitive operations.
d. private speech.
A
Vygotsky believed that everyone learns within their _____, which is an intellectual area where new skills can be mastered.
a. scaffolding.
b. zone of proximal development.
c. guided participation.
d. theory of mind.
B
_____ refers to the idea that children naturally construct theories to explain what they see and hear.
a. Theory-theory
b. Social mediation
c. Scaffolding
d. Guided participation
A
Theory of mind:
a. typically appears rather suddenly.
b. occurs in predictable phases over a period of two to three years between the ages of four and eight.
c. occurs in predictable phases over a period of two to three years between the ages of eight and
d. does not occur until the formal operational stage of cognitive development is reached.
A
The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called:
a. scaffolding.
b. fast-mapping.
c. guided participation.
d. conservation.
B
The tendency of a young child to apply rules of grammar when he or she should not is:
a. overregularization.
b. fast-mapping.
c. syntax extension.
d. scaffolding.
A
Child-centered programs recognize that children learn through play with other children. This is most consistent with the views of:
a. Piaget's
b. Vygotsky's
c. Erikson's
d. Freud's
B
According to the text, what complicates the evaluation of Head Start programs?
a. The program is no longer federally funded.
b. Various programs refuse to participate.
c. Gender-based differences in cognitive development make comparisons difficult.
d. Programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals.
D
The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is _________ term for the skills, cognitive as well as physical, that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently.

a. Piaget's
b. Vygotsky's
c. Erikson's
d. Freud's
b
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.

a. trust versus mistrust.
b. autonomy versus shame.
c. initiative versus guilt.
d. industry versus inferiority.
C
Initiative versus guilt is _________ third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.

a. Piaget's
b. Vygotsky's
c. Erikson's
d. Freud's
C
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
C
Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
B
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
A
The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers' exclusive love.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
D
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
F. antisocial behavior
E
Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
F. antisocial behavior
G. child neglect
F
An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children.

A. authoritative parenting
B. authoritarian parenting
C. neglectful/uninvolved parenting
A
Failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs.

A. bullying aggression
B. child maltreatment
C. antipathy
D. electra complex
E. child abuse
F. antisocial behavior
G. child neglect
H. reported maltreatment
G
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.

A. authoritative parenting
B. authoritarian parenting
C. neglectful/uninvolved parenting
B
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.

A. externalizing problems
B. psychopathology
C. emotional regulation
C
An illness or disorder of the mind.

A. rough-and-tumble play
B. psychopathology
C. emotional regulation
B
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.

A. rough-and-tumble play
B. sociodramatic play
A
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.

A. externalizing problems
B. psychopathology
C. emotional regulation
A
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.

A. internalizing problems
B. intrinsic motivation
C. self-concept
B
Imaginary friends are make-believe friends who exist only in a child's imagination; increasingly common from ages ___________, they combat loneliness and aid emotional regulation.

A. 3 through 7
B. 2 through 6
C. 4 through 8
a
A person's understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits, such as gender and size.

A. internalizing problems
B. intrinsic motivation
C. self-concept
D. extrinsic motivation
C
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.

A. internalizing problems
B. intrinsic motivation
C. self-concept
D. extrinsic motivation
A
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem.

A. internalizing problems
B. intrinsic motivation
C. self-concept
D. extrinsic motivation
D
Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.

A. rough-and-tumble play
B. sociodramatic play
B
A child's cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences.

A. gender schema
B. Oedipus complex
A
The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers' exclusive love.

A. gender schema
B. Oedipus complex
B
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.

a. latency stage
b. phallic stage
c. genital stage
d. industry stage
b
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.

A. identification
B. instrumental aggression
C. empathy
C
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives.

A. authoritative parenting
B. authoritarian parenting
C. neglectful/uninvolved parenting
D. permissive parenting
C
Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it.

A. identification
B. instrumental aggression
C. reactive aggression
D. relational aggression
B
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.

A. identification
B. instrumental aggression
C. reactive aggression
D. relational aggression
A
Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females.

A. gender differences
B. sex differences
A
An effort by child-welfare authorities to find a long-term living situation that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, which can be particularly harmful to the child.

A. permanency planning
B. kinship care
A
A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver.

A. permanency planning
B. kinship care
B
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shape.

A. gender differences
B. sex differences
B
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.

A. identification
B. instrumental aggression
C. reactive aggression
D. relational aggression
C
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.

A. Ego
B. Superego
C. Alterego
B
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.

A. identification
B. instrumental aggression
C. reactive aggression
D. relational aggression
D
Harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities.

A. child maltreatment
B. reported maltreatment
C. substantiated maltreatment
B
A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.

A. prosocial behavior
B. time-out
C. psychological control
C
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time.

A. prosocial behavior
B. time-out
C. psychological control
B
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.

A. authoritative parenting
B. authoritarian parenting
C. neglectful/uninvolved parenting
D. permissive parenting
D
Harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified.

A. child maltreatment
B. reported maltreatment
C. substantiated maltreatment
C
Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them.

A. prosocial behavior
B. time-out
C. psychological control
A
By age six, the average child in a developed nation is:
a. at least three and one-half feet tall
b. not yet three and one-half feet tall
c. taller than most seven year olds in underdeveloped nations.
d. obese.
A
When a young child insists that he brushes his teeth before he reads a story - not after - he or she is exhibiting:
a. the "just-right" phenomenon.
b. the "all's well" phenomenon.
c. picky eater's syndrome.
d. a mental disorder.
A
Exposure to high levels of lead does not cause:
a. a decrease in motor skills.
b. reduced intelligence.
c. behavior problems.
d. mental retardation.
A
The prefrontal cortex is involved in:
a. emotional and creative impulses.
b. planning and goal-directed behavior.
c. auditory and visual processing.
d. voluntary movement and balance.
B
The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain is:
a. associated tasks.
b. lateralization.
c. integrative processing.
d. limbic processing.
B
The _______ is the brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety.
a. hypothalamus
b. hippocampus
c. amygdala
d. cortex
C
A three-year-old who gives his mother a toy car for HER birthday and expects that she will love it is demonstrating:
a. egocentrism.
b. centration.
c. focus on appearance.
d. static reasoning.
A
Which characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child assuming that the world is unchanging?
a. centration
b. irreversibility
c. static reasoning
d. conservation
C
Vygotsky emphasized __________ as a measure of intelligence.
a. curiosity
b. operations
c. what is known
d. the ability to learn
D
Which of the following terms refers to temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and aimed at helping him or her master a new skill?
a. zone of proximal development
b. social mediation
c. apprentice in training
d. scaffolding
D
The tendency of children to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned is known as:
a. scaffolding.
b. overimitation.
c. mocking.
d. linguistic competence.
B
The understanding that others can have thoughts and ideas unlike one's own describes:
a. neurological maturation.
b. linguistic competence.
c. theory of mind.
d. scaffolding.
C
As a hobby, Jessica and her husband work on car engines. Jessica doesn't always know what a particular car part is, but she typically understands its function and places it in an appropriate mental category. This is an example of:
a. scaffolding.
b. fast-mapping.
c. guided participation.
d. conservation.
B
Overregularization demonstrates a child's understanding of:
a. vocabulary.
b. grammar.
c. syntax.
d. theory of mind.
B
Research on early-childhood education programs finds that:
a. quality matters most.
b. specific curricula matter most.
c. philosophy of education matters most.
d. home care is always best.
A
Montessori schools emphasize:
a. artistic expression.
b. individual pride and accomplishment.
c. group activities and projects.
d. pretend and dramatic play.
B
Which of the following preschools, named after the town in Italy where it began, encourages students to master skills such as writing and using tools?
a. Emerson Waldorf
b. Reggio Emilia
c. Montessori
d. Head Start
B
Which of the following types of programs stresses readiness for school, emphasizing letters and numbers that all children should understand?
a. teacher-directed programs
b. student-directed programs
c. Montessori programs
d. None of the above are correct.
A
Head Start, the federally-funded early-childhood education program for four-year-olds, began in:
a. 1985.
b. 1975.
c. 1955.
d. 1965.
D
The young children who are least likely to attend preschool in the United States are typically:
a. African-American.
b. Hispanic.
c. caucasian.
d. Asian-American.
B
Children who have mastered ___________ have learned when and how to express emotions.
a. emotional regulation
b. emotional development
c. behavioral regulation
d. behavioral control
A
Initiative versus guilt is Erikson's _____ developmental stage.
a. second.
b. third.
c. fourth.
d. fifth.
B
Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams. These naive predictions are called:
a. protective optimism.
b. self-esteem.
c. self-concept.
d. initiative.
A
The impulse that propels someone to act is called:
a. shame.
b. motivation.
c. pessimism.
d. guilt.
B
A musician who plays for the delight of making music has an:
a. extrinsic motivation.
b. inner drive.
c. need for attention.
d. intrinsic motivation.
D
Four-year-old Brooks is afraid of certain things, such as the sound of a train whistle and going to bed without a light on. His excessive fears are an expression of:
a. a lack of maturation in his hearing and vision.
b. adequate emotional regulation.
c. poor caregiving by his mother and father.
d. immature development of his prefrontal cortex.
D
An illness or disorder of the mind is referred to as:
a. emotional deregulation.
b. psychosomatic.
c. psychopathology.
d. None of these answers is correct.
C
When a person expresses powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, he or she is:
a. externalizing problems.
b. internalizing problems.
c. extrinsically motivated.
d. emotionally regulated.
A
An example of an externalizing problem is_________, while an example of an internalizing problem is ______________.
a. excessive guilt; impulsive behavior
b. excessive shame; verbal outbursts
c. excessive worthlessness; attacking other people or things
d. attacking other people; being withdrawn
D
Peers provide practice in:
a. emotional regulation.
b. empathy.
c. social understanding.
d. All of these answers are correct.
D
Which of the following is an example of parallel play?
a. Child plays alone.
b. Child watches another child play.
c. Children play with similar toys, but not together.
d. Children play together and take turns.
C
Many researchers have traced the effects of parenting on child development, but the researcher whose findings continue to be very influential is:
a. Piaget.
b. Erikson.
c. Vygotsky.
d. Baumrind.
D
What is the parenting style in which parents are more likely to use physical punishment?
a. authoritative
b. authoritarian
c. permissive
d. expressive
B
On average, young children of every ethnic and economic group spend ________ a day exposed to electronic media.
a. one to two hours
b. two to three hours
c. three to five hours
d. six hours
C
Which one of the following terms refers to a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person?
a. antipathy
b. sympathy
c. empathy
d. antisocial
C
Six-year-old Johnny suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason. Johnny is displaying:
a. rough-and-tumble play.
b. prosocial behavior.
c. antisocial behavior.
d. internalizing problems.
C
Which type of aggression is characterized by insults or social rejection aimed at harming the victim's friendships?
a. instrumental aggression
b. reactive aggression
c. relational aggression
d. bullying aggression
C
The ultimate goal of discipline is to:
a. prevent the child from misbehaving.
b. teach the child the standards of behavior within his or her culture.
c. make the child obedient.
d. prevent the child from becoming a delinquent.
B
Longitudinal research has found that children who are physically punished:
a. become adults who reject the idea of physically punishing children.
b. are likely to become well-behaved children.
c. are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults.
d. will always become violent adults.
C
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time is called a:
a. social exclusion.
b. spanking.
c. firm separation.
d. time-out.
D
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed is referred to as:
a. behavioral regulation.
b. emotional regulation.
c. emotional control.
d. empathy.
B
Erik Erikson's third developmental stage, in which self-esteem emerges, is called:
a. trust versus mistrust.
b. autonomy versus shame.
c. initiative versus guilt.
d. industry versus inferiority.
C
Imaginary friends are increasingly common between:
a. ages one and three.
b. ages three and seven.
c. ages eight to ten.
d. None of the above are correct.
B
Drive that comes from inside a person is called:
a. intrinsic motivation.
b. extrinsic motivation.
c. inner drive.
d. personal motivation.
A
The part of the brain in which neurological advances significantly affect the ability to regulate emotion is the:
a. prefrontal cortex.
b. ventral temporal cortex.
c. hippocampus.
d. hypothalamus.
A
In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who knew they would receive an award for drawing:
a. were found to have higher levels of self-esteem.
b. became professional artists later in life.
c. demonstrated better emotional regulation.
d. were less likely to draw.
D
An illness or disorder of the mind is called:
a. psychosis.
b. schizophrenia.
c. aggression.
d. psychopathology.
D
Girls whose behavior problems got worse over the first years of primary school were more likely to engage in _____________ than boys were.
a. reparative behavior
b. aggressive actions
c. storytelling
d. make-believe
A
According to the text, neurological and hormonal effects may make boys more vulnerable to __________ problems and girls more vulnerable to __________ problems.
a. reparative; aggressive
b. aggressive; reparative
c. externalizing; internalizing
d. internalizing; externalizing
C
People of about the same age and social status are known as:
a. classmates.
b. cohort members.
c. peers.
d. playmates.
C
Which type of play appears first in Parten's progression of social play?
a. onlooker
b. solitary
c. parallel
d. associative
B
The researcher Diana Baumrind found that parents differ in four important dimensions of child rearing. Which of the following is one of those dimensions?
a. access to resources
b. expressions of warmth
c. sense of humor
d. expectations for intelligence
B
Parents who have low expectations for maturity and rarely discipline their children are characterized by Baumrind as:
a. authoritarian.
b. neglectful.
c. authoritative.
d. permissive.
D
Biological differences between males and females are referred to as:
a. sex differences.
b. gender differences.
c. sexuality differences.
d. genitalia differences.
A
Erikson explained that with maturity and adult guidance, children develop _____ and _____.
a. confusion; identity crises.
b. pessimism; depression.
c. guilt; self-control.
d. None of the above.
C
A parent might ask a child, "How would you feel if someone did that to you?" to:
a. foster antipathy.
b. encourage empathy.
c. encourage independence.
d. model reactive aggression.
B
Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind without a personal motive are:
a. antisocial.
b. prosocial.
c. selfish.
d. instrumentally motivated.
B
What kind of aggression is unprovoked and involves repeated physical or verbal attacks?
a. instrumental
b. reactive
c. relational
d. bullying
D
Hurtful behavior, common among two-year-olds, that is intended to get something that another person has is called:
a. instrumental aggression.
b. reactive aggression.
c. relational aggression.
d. bullying aggression.
A
Physical punishment ________ the possibility of aggression and temporarily ______ obedience.
a. increases; decreases
b. stops; increases
c. decreases; stops
d. increases; increases
D
Middle childhood is the healthiest period of the life span because:
a. motor skills are mastered.
b. children have learned to be cautious.
c. most illnesses occur before or after middle childhood.
d. All of these answers are correct.
D
In childhood, "overweight" is defined as:
a. weighing more than 50 percent of what your peers weigh.
b. having a BMI between 25 and 29.
c. having a BMI above the 85th percentile of children the same age.
d. having a BMI above the 95th percentile of children the same age.
C
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. Childhood obesity has doubled since 1980 in the United States.
b. All overweight children are obese.
c. Diabetes, not asthma, is more common among overweight children.
d. Childhood obesity involves the quantity, not the quality, of food.
A
A chronic respiratory disease in which inflammation narrows the airway is:
a. asthma.
b. respiratory syndrome.
c. obstructive pulmonary disease.
d. bronchiolitis.
A
An example of tertiary prevention of asthma may be:
a. more exercise and less junk food.
b. prompt use of an inhaler.
c. better ventilation of the home.
d. to identify a cure.
B
Primary prevention of health problems requires:
a. changes in the entire society.
b. a decrease in illness.
c. treatment after problems appear.
d. None of the above are correct.
A
Piaget stressed the ______________, whereas Vygotsky stressed the _________________.
a. sociocultural context; maturational approach
b. importance of instruction by others; child's own discovery of concepts
c. child's own discovery of concepts; importance of instruction by others
d. apprenticeship method of learning; formal education of children
C
Rob is taking a test. By answering the easy questions first so that he can devote most of his time to the more difficult questions, he is displaying:
a. information processing.
b. selective attention.
c. metacognition.
d. automatization.
C
The unrecognized rules and priorities that influence a child's learning in school are called the:
a. extracurricular activities.
b. implied curriculum.
c. hidden curriculum.
d. school culture.
C
The international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth- and eighth-graders is called:
a. PIRLS.
b. CAT.
c. IQ test.
d. TIMSS.
D
According to your text, PIRLS results show that girls are ahead of boys in _____ skills in every nation.
a. scientific
b. mathematical
c. verbal
d. None of the answers are correct.
C
According to your text, PIRLS results show that girls are ahead of boys in _____ skills in every nation.
a. scientific
b. mathematical
c. verbal
d. None of the answers are correct.
c
The No Child Left Behind Act was passed in _____:
a. 1991.
b. 2012.
c. 2011.
d. 2001.
D
Intellectual aptitude is measured with:
a. the Flynn effect.
b. achievement tests.
c. IQ tests.
d. fMRI.
C
Which one of the following statements about IQ tests is TRUE?
a. IQ tests predict school achievement.
b. IQ tests cannot predict adult success.
c. Because IQ tests are standardized, they can be used with people of any culture.
d. IQ tests measure emotional aptitude.
A
What is thought to account for the Flynn effect?
a. genetic drift
b. standardized testing
c. globalization
d. environmental factors
D
Which theorist proposed three distinct types of intelligence?
a. Sternberg
b. Gardner
c. Binet
d. Gibson
A
Which is one type of intelligence identified by Howard Gardner?
a. intrapersonal
b. emotional
c. religious
d. cultural
A
Which of the following is one of the lessons of developmental psychopathology that applies to all children?
a. Abnormality is a problem that must be addressed immediately.
b. Childhood disabilities worsen during adolescence and adulthood.
c. Abnormality is unusual.
d. Disability changes year by year.
D
A condition in which a child has great difficulty concentrating and is overactive and impulsive is:
a. concentration impulsive disorder (CID).
b. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
c. attention-deficit disorder (ADD).
d. comormid syndrome.
B
Most fatal childhood diseases:
a. occur before age three.
b. are easier to prevent once children are beyond the preschool years.
c. occur during middle childhood.
d. occur before age seven.
D
If a child has a BMI above the 95th percentile, he would be classified as:
a. diabetic.
b. underweight.
c. overweight.
d. obese.
D
What causes childhood obesity?
a. heredity
b. parenting practices
c. social influences
d. All of these answers are correct.
D
Which of the following statements about asthma in middle childhood is TRUE?
a. Rates are high in North and South America but are declining in Asia and Europe.
b. Genes increase the risk of asthma, but environment is crucial.
c. Families living in similar conditions will have similar rates of asthma.
d. Some experts think that rates are increasing because children are overexposed to bacteria and viruses.
B
An example of tertiary prevention of asthma could be:
a. using hypoallergenic mattress covers.
b. ridding a house of allergens.
c. decreasing pollution.
d. ventilating schools better.
A
The knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical series is:
a. transitive inference.
b. reversibility.
c. seriation.
d. classification.
C
Vygotsky believed that children learn from their:
a. peers.
b. culture.
c. teachers.
d. All of these answers are correct.
D
The ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that particular task, is known as:
a. metacognition.
b. intelligence.
c. thinking about doing.
d. scaffolding.
A
Research on information processing suggests that the ________ code is better for teachers.
a. informal
b. formal
c. standard
d. vocal
B
The strategy in which instruction occurs in the second language that a child is learning is known as:
a. immersion.
b. bilingual schooling.
c. ESL.
d. None of these answers is correct.
A
An obvious manifestation of the hidden curriculum is:
a. federal achievement tests.
b. the school's physical condition.
c. reporting attendance to state authorities.
d. high school graduation requirements.
B
A public school with its own set of standards that is funded and licensed by its state or local district is known as a:
a. magnet school.
b. charter school.
c. hidden curriculum.
d. bilingual school.
B
A test designed to measure intellectual aptitude is referred to as:
a. the GRE.
b. an achievement test.
c. an IQ test.
d. None of the above are correct.
C
A measure of proficiency in reading, mathematics, or some other subject is a(n):
a. aptitude test.
b. achievement test.
c. intelligence test.
d. Flynn test.
B
The first highly regarded IQ test was the:
a. WPPSI.
b. WISC.
c. Stanford-Binet.
d. Flynn.
C
The term "Flynn effect" refers to:
a. the hypothesized correlation between aptitude and achievement.
b. the rise in average IQ scores of entire nations.
c. the impact of standardized testing on school performance.
d. modern declines in intellectual achievement despite gains in aptitude.
B
Which is one of the types of intelligence identified by Sternberg?
a. creative
b. social-emotional
c. sensory motor
d. analytical
A
Regarding intelligence, Gardner would say that:
a. a single test measures potential.
b. a single test measures achievement.
c. humans have many intelligences.
d. intelligence does not change over time.
C
What percentage of children in the United States are currently diagnosed with ADHD?
a. five
b. 10
c. 12
d. 15
B
A diagnosis of ADHD indicates that a child not only has problems concentrating but also:
a. has a below-normal IQ.
b. has at least an average IQ.
c. is unable to function socially.
d. is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.
D
What is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development?
a. industry versus inferiority
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. identity versus role confusion
d. initiative versus guilt
A
According to Erikson, if eight-year-old Kristina does NOT solve the fourth stage of her psychosocial conflict, she will come to view herself as:
a. self-regulating.
b. inferior.
c. industrious.
d. competent.
B
Freud referred to middle childhood as the period of:
a. crisis.
b. industry.
c. inferiority.
d. latency.
D
The tendency to assess one's own abilities by measuring them against those of other people, especially peers, is:
a. self-criticism.
b. social comparison.
c. self-concept.
d. social evaluation.
B
The capacity to develop well by adapting positively to significant adversity is called:
a. self-esteem.
b. stability.
c. industry.
d. resilience.
D
The way in which a family works to meet the needs of its members is referred to as:
a. family structure.
b. family stability.
c. family function.
d. extended family.
C
The legal and genetic connections among people living in the same household are known as:
a. family function.
b. family structure.
c. DNA.
d. family dynamics.
B
A child that grows up in a military family is usually lacking in:
a. educational opportunities.
b. good health care.
c. stability.
d. socioeconomic status.
C
The most common type of family structure for U.S. children between ages six and 11 is:
a. adoptive.
b. blended.
c. nuclear.
d. single-parent.
C
An extended family is a family that may include:
a. cousins.
b. uncles.
c. grandparents.
d. All of the above.
D
According to your text, two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation are:
a. homosexuality and divorce.
b. cohabitation and low income.
c. low income and high conflict.
d. financial stress and lack of marital commitment.
C
A characteristic of the culture of children may include:
a. spouting curses, accents, and slang.
b. improving attitudes toward parents.
c. making higher grades in school.
d. excluding peers due to ethnic and racial prejudices.
A
Psychosocially, one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child is to:
a. develop a mild temperament.
b. learn how to get along with peers.
c. learn how to obey parents and teachers.
d. develop good study habits.
B
Research on social acceptance among children indicates that:
a. all children are well liked at some point during their middle-school years.
b. some children are well liked - others aren't - and those in both groups change over time.
c. some children are well liked - others aren't - and once acceptance is determined, it remains constant.
d. culture does not affect the social acceptance among children.
B
The ability to understand human interactions is called:
a. social cognition.
b. effortful control.
c. latency.
d. resilience.
A
Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is a(n):
a. aggressive-rejected child.
b. withdrawn-rejected child.
c. neglected child.
d. aggressive-withdrawn child.
A
Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person is the definition of:
a. intolerant social functioning.
b. aggressive-rejection.
c. harassment.
d. bullying.
D
Research has shown that children develop their own standards of right and wrong, guided by:
a. peers only.
b. parents only.
c. culture only.
d. peers, parents, and culture.
D
The theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning is:
a. Piaget.
b. Kohlberg.
c. Erikson.
d. Freud.
B
Civic sense and virtue begins:
a. in middle childhood.
b. prior to middle childhood.
c. in adolescence.
d. in adulthood.
A
During Erikson's crisis of industry versus inferiority, children:
a. repress their psychosexual needs.
b. require more adult supervision.
c. do poorly academically.
d. attempt to master many skills.
D
Which of the following scenarios represents the typical child in Erikson's fourth stage?
a. Jill avoids learning new skills.
b. Marisol can't wait to begin her first karate class.
c. John has difficulty making friends.
d. Gustavo is struggling with his identity.
B
Freud believed that children's emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet during the _____.
a. latency stage
b. phallic stage
c. genital stage
d. industry stage
A
School-aged children tend to be aware of their classmates' opinions, judgments, and accomplishments. This development enables school-aged children to engage in:
a. social efficacy.
b. the culture of children.
c. social comparison.
d. peer rejection.
C
Which of the following is TRUE of resilience?
a. Resilience is a stable trait.
b. Resilience is dynamic.
c. Resilience is defined as the absence of pathology.
d. A child experiencing minor stressors is considered resilient.
B
According to your text, the most important overall family function is to provide:
a. exposure to religious functions.
b. love and encouragement.
c. a two-parent support system for siblings.
d. All of these answers are equally important.
B
Children in U.S. military families move often and:
a. have fewer emotional problems.
b. have higher achievement in school.
c. have lower school achievement.
d. show no difference in achievement level.
C
A family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children younger than age 18 is referred to as a:
a. nuclear family.
b. extended family.
c. blended family.
d. polygamous family.
A
According to your text, approximately _____ percent of six to 11-year-olds currently live in a single-parent family.
a. 80
b. 75
c. 50
d. 30
D
The __________ model examines crucial questions about the effect of risk factors such as poverty, divorce, or job loss on the family.
a. stress
b. high-risk
c. risk-stress
d. family-stress
D
Ten-year-old Julian's parents frequently yell and argue. He will more likely:
a. feel lonely if he blames himself for his parents' fights.
b. excel in school if he blames himself for his parents' fights.
c. be troubled if he doesn't take some responsibility for his parents' discord.
d. not be affected by the lack of harmony.
A
The difference in the psychosocial development of young children compared to middle-school children is that:
a. young children are able to make friends much more easily than middle-school children are.
b. middle-school children allow their egocentrism to affect their friendships.
c. middle-school children are not aware of other children's acceptance or rejection of them.
d. young children's egocentrism makes them less affected by other children's acceptance or rejection of them.
D
One interesting aspect of the culture of children is that:
a. racial and ethnic prejudice is prevalent during the school years.
b. a sense of fairness and justice is elaborate during the school years.
c. gender stereotypes and gender segregation are strongly maintained.
d. learning a second language is difficult.
C
"Social cognition" refers to:
a. the measure of popularity.
b. the ability to understand social interactions.
c. the ability to modify impulses and emotions.
d. how resilient a child is.
B
According to research, the most popular young children are:
a. funny and energetic.
b. kind and cooperative.
c. kind and hard-working.
d. shy and kind.
B
A child who is rejected by peers because of timid and anxious behavior is referred to as:
a. aggressive-rejected.
b. withdrawn-rejected.
c. neglected.
d. disliked-rejected.
B
Characteristics of bullying are:
a. isolated attacks and insults among children.
b. repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person.
c. aggressive, playful attacks on one's best friend.
d. occasional insults and fights.
b
Kohlberg described _____ levels of moral reasoning with _____ stages at each level.
a. three; two
b. two; three
c. three; four
d. two: four
A
Which of the following is one of Kohlberg's levels of moral thought?
a. preconventional moral reasoning
b. ethical moral reasoning
c. unconventional moral reasoning
d. None of the above are correct.
A
Kohlberg would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning:
a. with a "law and order" orientation.
b. at the conventional level.
c. with a punishment and obedience orientation.
d. consistent with concrete operational thought.
C
___________ emphasized the ability to learn as a measure of intelligence.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
g
Initiative versus guilt is ________ third developmental stage.

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
a
_________ explained that with maturity and adult guidance, children develop guilt and self-control.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
a
___________ stressed the child's own discovery of concepts, whereas Vygotsky stressed the importance of instruction by others.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
e
Intrapersonal intelligence was identified by _________.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
b
______ believed that children learn from their peers, culture, and teachers.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
g
Creative intelligence was identified by _________.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
f
Regarding intelligence, _________ would say that humans have many intelligences.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
b
fourth stage of psychosocial development is industry versus inferiority.

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
a
According to ___________, if eight-year-old Kristina does NOT solve the fourth stage of her psychosocial conflict, she will come to view herself as inferior.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
a
________ referred to middle childhood as the period of latency.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
c
Marisol can't wait to begin her first karate class. This scenario represents the typical child in __________ fourth stage?

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
a
_______ believed that children's emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet during the latency stage.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
c
______ described three levels of moral reasoning with two stages at each level.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
d
Preconventional moral reasoning is one of ________ levels of moral thought

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
d
would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning with a punishment and obedience orientation.

A. Erikson
B. Gardner
C. Freud
D. Kohlbert
E. Piaget
F. Sternberg
G. Vygotsky
d
A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and the second (majority) language.

A. Bilingual schooling
B. Immersion schooling
C. ESL (English as a second language)
A
A strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (usually the majority) language that a child is learning.

A. Bilingual schooling
B. Immersion schooling
C. ESL (English as a second language)
B
A chronic disease of the respiratory system in which inflammation narrows the airways from the nose and mouth to the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. Signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

A. Asthma
B. Bronchitis
C. Cold
A
In a child, having a BMI above the _________ percentile, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control's 1980 standards for children of a given age is considered to be childhood obesity.

A. 85th
B. 90th
C. 95th
C
Piaget's term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.

A. knowledge base
B. concrete operational thought
C. control processes
B
_________ term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
E
In a child, having a BMI above the ______ percentile, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control's 1980 standards for children of a given age means he or she is overweight.

A. 80th
B. 85th
C. 90th
D. 95th
B
A person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters.

A. Body Mass Index (BMI)
A
The logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common.

A. control processes
B. knowledge base
C. classification
C
Mechanisms (including selective attention, metacognition, and emotional regulation) that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information processing system. (Also called executive processes.)

A. control processes
B. knowledge base
C. classification
A
The unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every other aspect of learning in a school.

A. individual education plan (IEP)
B. hidden curriculum
C. No Child Left Behind Act
B
An approach to teaching English in which all children who do not speak English are placed together in an intensive course to learn basic English so that they can be educated in the same classroom as native English speakers.

A. Bilingual schooling
B. Immersion schooling
C. ESL (English as a second language)
C
A condition in which a person not only has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.

A. co-morbid
B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
C. dyscalculia
D. bipolar disorder
B
A document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs.

A. individual education plan (IEP)
B. hidden curriculum
C. No Child Left Behind Act
A
Refers to the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.

A. co-morbid
B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
C. dyscalculia
D. bipolar disorder
A
A public school with its own set of standards that is funded and licensed by the state or local district in which it is located.

A. Montessori school
B. Charter school
C. Head Start Program
D. Home Schooling
B
Unusual difficulty with math, probably originating from a distinct part of the brain.

A. co-morbid
B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
C. dyscalculia
D. bipolar disorder
C
A condition characterized by extreme mood swings, from euphoria to deep depression, not caused by outside experiences.

A. co-morbid
B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
C. dyscalculia
D. bipolar disorder
E. autism spectrum disorder
D
The potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge.

A. Aptitude
B. Achievement test
C. Working memory
A
Education in which children are taught at home, usually by their parents, instead of attending any school, public or private.

A. Montessori school
B. Charter school
C. Head Start Program
D. Home Schooling
E. Parochial School
D
Unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment.

A. Dyslexia
B. Dyscalculia
C. Learning disability
A
A basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one symptom can have many causes.


A. Dyslexia
B. Dyscalculia
C. Equifinality
C
Any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play.

A. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
B. bipolar disorder
C. autism spectrum disorder
C
A measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject.

A. Aptitude
B. Achievement test
C. Working memory
B
The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations.

A. Flynn Effect
B. Trends in Math and Science Study (TIMSS)
C. Knowledge base
A
Middle Childhood is the period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages _________.

A. 5 to 10
B. 6 to 11
C. 7 to 12
B
An international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth- and eighth-graders. Although the ______ is very useful, different countries' scores are not always comparable because sample selection, test administration, and content validity are hard to keep uniform.

A. Flynn Effect
B. Trends in Math and Science Study (TIMSS)
C. IQ Test
B
The component of the information processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs. (Formerly called short-term memory.)

A. Sensory Memory
B. Working memory
C. Long-term memory
B
The component of the information processing system in which incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed. (Also called the sensory register.)

A. Sensory Memory
B. Working memory
C. Long-term memory
A
A U.S. law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievement.

A. individual education plan (IEP)
B. hidden curriculum
C. No Child Left Behind Act
D. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
C
An ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children's achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over time; nicknamed "the Nation's Report Card".

A. individual education plan (IEP)
B. hidden curriculum
C. No Child Left Behind Act
D. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
D
A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area.

A. control processes
B. knowledge base
C. classification
B
The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eyeblink) or cognitively (with a thought).

A. Aptitude
B. Reaction Time
C. Selective Attention
B
The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.

A. Aptitude
B. Reaction Time
C. Selective Attention
C
The component of the information processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely.

A. Sensory Memory
B. Working memory
C. Long-term memory
C
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.

A. Aptitude
B. Metacognition
C. Knowledge Base
B
Inaugurated in 2001, a planned five year cycle of international trend studies in the reading ability of fourth-graders.

A. No Child Left Behind Act
B. National Assessment of Educational
C. Progress (NAEP)Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)
D. Least restrictive environment (LRE)
C
The practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context.

A. pragmatics
B. multiple intelligences
C. IQ Test
A
A test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school. Originally, intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100, hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ.

IQ Test

T/F
t
The idea that human intelligence is comprised of a varied set of abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one.

A. pragmatics
B. multiple intelligences
C. IQ Test
B
A legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn.

A. No Child Left Behind Act
B. National Assessment of Educational
C. Progress (NAEP)Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)
D. Least restrictive environment (LRE)
D
Non-public schools organized by a religious group, often Roman Catholic but sometimes Jewish, Muslim, and so on. The curriculum, discipline, and many instructors in _______schools reflect the beliefs of the religious body, which often provides substantial financial support.

A. Montessori school
B. Charter school
C. Head Start Program
D. Home Schooling
E. Parochial School
F. Private School
E
A basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one cause can have many (multiple) final manifestations.

A. Learning disability
B. response to intervention (RTI)
C. multifinality
C
Public subsidy for tuition payment at a non-public school. Vouchers vary a great deal from place to place, not only in amount and availability, but in restrictions as to who gets them and what schools accept them.

A. Montessori school
B. Charter school
C. Head Start Program
D. Home Schooling
E. Parochial School
F. Private School
F
An educational strategy intended to help children in early grades who demonstrate below-average achievement by means of special intervention.

A. Learning disability
B. response to intervention (RTI)
C. multifinality
B
A monetary commitment by the government to pay for the education of a child. Typically, with a ________ system, parents choose whether to send their children to public, private, or parochial schools, and the _________ goes to whatever school the child attends.

A. money
B. voucher
C. private
B
A marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment.

A. Dyslexia
B. Dyscalculia
C. Learning disability
C
The legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.

A. Family Structure
B. Family Function
A
The way a family works to meet the needs of its members. Children need families to provide basic material necessities, to encourage learning, to help them develop self-respect, to nurture friendships, and to foster harmony and stability.

A. Family Structure
B. Family Function
B
The fourth of Erikson's eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.

a. trust versus mistrust.
b. autonomy versus shame.
c. initiative versus guilt.
d. industry versus inferiority.
D
A family of three or more generations living in one household.

A. extended family
B. single-parent family
C. polygamous family
D. nuclear family
A
Freud's term for middle childhood, during which children's emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet. Freud thought that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth again at puberty.

a. latency stage
b. phallic stage
c. genital stage
d. industry stage
A
The fourth of ________ eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent is industry versus inferiority..

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
A
_________ term for middle childhood, during which children's emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet (latent). He thought that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth again at puberty is latency stage.

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
C
Rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior.

A. conventional moral reasoning
B. aggressive-rejected
C. child culture
B
The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.

A. conventional moral reasoning
B. aggressive-rejected
C. child culture
C
Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules.

A. conventional moral reasoning
B. aggressive-rejected
C. child culture
A
_________ second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules is called conventional moral reasoning

A. Erikson's
B. Gardner's
C. Freud's
D. Kohlbert's
E. Piaget's
F. Sternberg's
G. Vygotsky's
D
Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. (Also called provocative victims because they do things that elicit bullying.)

A. Bully-Victim
B. Bullying
C. Victim
A
Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.

A. Bully-Victim
B. Bullying
C. Victim
B
A family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18.

A. single-parent family
B. polygamous family
C. nuclear family
C
The tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers.

A. resilience
B. withdrawn-rejected
C. social comparison
C
A family that consists of only one parent and his or her biological children under age 18.

A. single-parent family
B. polygamous family
C. nuclear family
A
The capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.

A. Resilience
B. Preconventional moral reasoning
C. Withdrawn-rejected
A
Kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning, emphasizing rewards and punishments.

A. preconventional moral reasoning
B. postconventional moral reasoning
A
Kohlberg's third level of moral reasoning, emphasizing moral principles.

A. preconventional moral reasoning
B. postconventional moral reasoning
B
Rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior.

A. Resilience
B. Preconventional moral reasoning
C. Withdrawn-rejected
C
Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling, some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called the:
A Stanford Swell.
B Brain Leap.
C Intelligence Surge.
D Flynn Effect.
D
Family Structure refers to:
A how well a family raises its children
B legal and genetic relationships of family members
C how the family's house is constructed
D how the various generations interact
B
Susan decides not to tell the teacher that her classmate Ian is cheating on the math exam because she's afraid the other kid will call her a snitch. This is an example of Kohlberg's ______________ level of moral development.
A preconventonal
B preoperational
C conventional
D postconventional
C
A significant delay in a specific area of learning not associated with a physical handicap, mental retardation, or a stressful environment is an indication of:
A a learning disability
B dyslexia
C disapproprio externalis
D an ADD disorder
A
Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hour rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of:
A industry
B self-control
C autonomy
D egocentrism
A
The key word in the definition of bullying is:
A attacks
B repeated
C harm
D systematic
B
According to Piaget, a child between the ages of 6 and 8 can apply logical principles to:
A abstractions, such as truth and justice.
B chemistry and physics.
C concrete and visible examples.
D questions of social justice.
C
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development.
A conventional
B preconventional
C premoral
D postconventional
B
Social cognition refers to
A the ability to act as a leader
B mastery of the basic concepts of classification and causality
C the ability to learn about various societies
D the ability to understand social interactions
D
Vygotsky believed that the formal classroom setting is the primary way in which school-age children learn.
true/false
F
Janelle's usual bedtime is 8:30 pm, and her parents strictly enforce this rule. One evening, Janelle is watching an educational program on the Discovery Channel, which ends at 9 pm. She asks her parents if she can stay up on this one night to watch the end of the program. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. What type of parenting style are Janelle's parents demonstrating?

A. Authoritarian
B. Authoritative
C. Uninvolved
D. Preventive
B
Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat form one certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon of:

A. All's well
B. Just right
C. Obsessive compulsive behavior
D. Early persnickety syndrome
B
The leading psychosocial accomplishment needed between the ages of 2 and 6 is:

A. Learning when and how to pay attention
B. Learning when and how to make moral decisions
C. Learning when and how to express emotions
D. Learning when and how to make decisions
C
Four-year-old Jon is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hotdogs for lunch. Mom cuts Jon's hotdog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces. Jon protests because Erin has more than him! Which of the following abilities does Jon not yet demonstrate?

A. Logic
B. Centration
C. Egocentrism
D. Conservation
D
Skills that a person can perform with assistance, but which they cannot quite perform on their own, lie within the:

A. Zone of proximal development
B. Area of demarcation
C. Realm of operational thinking
D. Range of potential performance
A
Piaget believed that between the ages of 2 and 6, it is difficult for children to think:

A. Subjectively
B. Egocentrically
C. Logically
D. Abstractly
C
Writing your name is a ________, whereas kicking a ball is a ________.

A. Sensorimotor skill, preoperational skill
B. Physical skill, cognitive skill
C. Coordination skill, inter-coordination skill
D. Fine motor skill, gross motor skill
D
According to the text, _____ differences are biological and ____ differences are culturally prescribed.

A. Gender; sex
B. Sex; gender
C. Sibling; parental
D. Parental; sibling
B
Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan's father's strategy for helping Juan learn to put together puzzles on his own?

A. Piaget
B. Vygotsky
C. Skinner
D. Freud
B
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings towards his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:

A. The Electra complex
B. Penis envy
C. The Oedipus complex
D. Identification
C