-the process by which axons and dendrites become insulated with a coating of myelin, a fatty substance that speed transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron in the brain
-a long, narrow strip of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain
-literally, "sidedness" -refers to the differentiation of the two sides of the body so that one side specializes in certain functions -allows the left side of the brain to control the right side of the body and vice versa
-the area at the front of the cortex of the brain that specializes in the "executive function"--planning, selecting, and coordinating thoughts
prefrontal cortex/frontal lobe
-the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action even when it has become useless or inappropriate
-the idea that accidents are not random and can be made less harmful with proper control -in practice, this means anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities
injury control/harm reduction
-actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse
-actions that avert harm in the immediate situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian
-actions that are taken after an adverse event occurs, aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability -immediate and effective medical treatment of illness or injury is an example of this
-all intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age
-deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
-failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
-a situation in which an infant or young child gains little or no weight, despite apparently normal health
failure to thrive
-a syndrome in which a victim or witness of a trauma or shock has lingering symptoms, which may include hyperactivity and hypervigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality
post-traumatic stress disorder
-maltreatment about which the police, child welfare agency, or other authorities have been officially notified
-maltreatment that has been reported, investigated, and verified
-a serious condition caused by maltreatment involving shaking a crying infant back and forth, sharply and quickly -severe brain damage results from internal hemorrhaging and broken neural connections
shaken baby syndrome
-a legally sanctioned, publicly supported plan that transfers care of maltreated children from parents to someone else
-a form of foster care in which a relative of the maltreated child becomes the approved caregiver
(1) estrogen (2) testosterone
What are the primary sex hormones of (1) females and of (2) males?
-In both males and females, levels of sex hormones are very high at birth, drop at about 18 months, and become high again at puberty
How do the levels of sex hormones change from birth to puberty?
-humans need this time to learn the many complex behaviors critical for survival -babysitting by older children conferred such an advantage on humans that our biological clock evolved to keep childhood as lengthy as possible
Anthropologists have proposed that an extended period of childhood evolved in humans because___?
-babies can sit before they stand -the muscles that permit sitting develop before those that permit standing, following the head-down principle of development
What does the "down and out" principle of development explain?
-perfect motor skills -develop a sense of being useful and competent -develop what Erikson referred to as a sense of industry
According to developmental psychologists, why is the play of "how to" time an important thing for children?
-insufficient intake of iron, zinc, and calcium
During the preschool years, what is the most common nutritional problem in developed countries?
-the left brain
Where is the brain center for speech usually located?
-removing a child from an abusive home
Which of the following is an example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment?
-home visitation of families with infants by health professionals
Which of the following is an example of secondary prevention of child maltreatment?
-new laws establishing stiff penalties for child maltreatment -public-policy measures aimed at creating stable neighborhoods
Which of the following is an example of primary prevention of child maltreatment?
-accidental deaths of 1-to5-year-olds have held steady in the US over the past two decades
Which of the following is not true regarding injury control?
-broad based television announcements do not have a direct impact on a child's risk taking -unless parents become involved, classroom safety education has little effect on children's actual behavior -safety laws that include penalties are more effective than educational measures
Which of the following is true regarding injury control?
-carbohydrates -delayed development of gross motor skills
What do children tend to have too much of in their diet? This contributes to what?
-gross motor skills
What are skills that involve large body movements, such as running and jumping, called?
-control the actions more precisely -react more quickly to stimuli -control their emotions
What does the brain's ongoing myelination and overall maturation during childhood help children to do?
What is the leading cause of death in childhood?
-the left hemisphere contains brain areas dedicated to spatial reasoning
Regarding lateralization, which of the following is not true?
Which of the following factors is most responsible for differences in height and weight between children in developed and developing countries?
-the prefrontal cortex
What area of the brain directs and controls the other areas?
-a negative correlation
How can one describe the relationship between accident rates and income?
-it connects the two halves of the brain
Which of the following is true of the corpus callosum?
-the brain areas associated with this ability become more fully myelinated
What contributes to the improvements in hand-eye coordination that allow preschoolers to catch and then throw a ball?
-when children are young and biological families are inadequate
When is adoption most likely to be successful as an intervention to maltreatment?
-2 year-old Jason sings the same song over and over
Which of the following is an example of perseveration?
During the play years, children's appetites seem ________they were in the first two years of life.
-post traumatic stress disorder
Jason is a three-year-old child, whose hyperactivity and hyper vigilance may be symptoms of: